Unhealthy men 'may lose 10 years' 不健康的吸烟者“或少活10年
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2009-09-18 06:56 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

aged2" target="_blank">Middle-aged1 male smokers3 with high blood pressure and raised cholesterol4 levels face dying about 10 years before healthier counterparts, a study warns.


Smoking and a high-cholesterol diet can lead to the narrowed <a href=arteries5 seen in this X-ray of a diseased heart" width="226" border="0" src="/upimg/090918/4_070721_1.jpg" />
Smoking and a high-cholesterol diet can lead to the narrowed arteries seen in this X-ray of a diseased heart

The UK study looked at more than 19,000 civil servants aged 40-69 and traced what happened to them 38 years later.

It concluded that men with these three risk factors could expect a 10-year shorter life from 50 years of age.

The British Heart Foundation said it was an important reminder6 for everyone over 40 to have a heart health check.

The study, published in the British Medical Journal, was set up at in 1967-70 at the peak of the vascular7(血管的,脉管的) disease epidemic8 in the UK.

Participants had their height, weight, blood pressure, lung function, cholesterol and blood glucose9(血糖) levels measured and completed a questionnaire about their previous medical history, smoking habits, employment grade and marital10 status.

Current smokers made up 42% of the men, 39% had high blood pressure and 51% had high cholesterol(胆固醇).

They were followed up nearly 40 years later in 2005 by which time 13,501 had died.

Risk factors

The researchers from the University of Oxford11 focused on smoking, high blood pressure and cholesterol because they are the main cardiovascular(心脏血管的) risk factors.

But when they broadened it out to look at all risk factors including obesity12(肥胖), diabetes13(糖尿病) and employment grade, they found a 15-year life expectancy14 difference between the 5% with the highest number of risk factors and the 5% who had the lowest number of risk factors.

The proportion of deaths attributed to vascular disease in old age has declined from about 60% in 1950 to less than 40% in 2005 for both men and women.

Dr Robert Clarke, of the Clinical Trial Service Unit at the University led the study.

He said: "'We've shown that men at age 50 who smoke, have high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels can expect to survive to 74 years of age, while those who have none of these risk factors can expect to live until 83.

"It is precisely15 this kind of very prolonged follow-up study that is necessary to get these results - that modest differences in heart risk factors can accurately16 predict significant differences in life expectancy.

"The results give people another way of looking at heart disease risk factors that can be understood more readily.

"If you stop smoking or take measures to deal with high blood pressure or body weight, it will translate into increased life expectancy. "

Healthy life

Professor Peter Weissberg, Medical Director at the BHF, said: "This important study puts a figure on the life-limiting effects of smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

"It provides a stark17(完全的) illustration(插图,例证) of how these risk factors in middle-age can reduce life expectancy.

"The good news is that all of us can make changes to help us live a healthy life for longer, even after 50.

"We know that stopping smoking and reducing blood pressure and cholesterol, by lifestyle changes and/or tablets, can prevent the onset18 of heart disease - and these findings suggest it could make a decade of difference to our lives.

"Although the study only involved men, there is no reason why the same should not apply to women.

"So, I urge all men and women over 40 to have a health check - that all GPs can provide - which will include finding out their blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and starting to address any areas of concern."

Jane Landon, deputy chief executive of the National Heart Forum19, said: "Public health strategies to discourage smoking and promote healthy eating and active lifestyles from childhood are vital to prevent the accumulation in middle age of these avoidable risk factors."

Professor Alan Maryon-Davis, president of the UK Faculty20 of Public Health, said: "These findings also help to explain why people who are less well off are more likely to die younger.

"Poorer people tend to smoke more, eat less healthy diets and suffer more psychosocial stress - all adding to their risk of heart disease. These are the people who need help most."


1 middle-aged UopzSS     
  • I noticed two middle-aged passengers.我注意到两个中年乘客。
  • The new skin balm was welcome by middle-aged women.这种新护肤香膏受到了中年妇女的欢迎。
2 aged 6zWzdI     
  • He had put on weight and aged a little.他胖了,也老点了。
  • He is aged,but his memory is still good.他已年老,然而记忆力还好。
3 smokers d3e72c6ca3bac844ba5aa381bd66edba     
吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 )
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不容易把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼似乎不在乎吸烟带来的种种危害。
4 cholesterol qrzzV     
  • There is cholesterol in the cell of body.人体细胞里有胆固醇。
  • They are determining the serum-protein and cholesterol levels.他们正在测定血清蛋白和胆固醇的浓度。
5 arteries 821b60db0d5e4edc87fdf5fc263ba3f5     
n.动脉( artery的名词复数 );干线,要道
  • Even grafting new blood vessels in place of the diseased coronary arteries has been tried. 甚至移植新血管代替不健康的冠状动脉的方法都已经试过。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • This is the place where the three main arteries of West London traffic met. 这就是伦敦西部三条主要交通干线的交汇处。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 reminder WkzzTb     
  • I have had another reminder from the library.我又收到图书馆的催还单。
  • It always took a final reminder to get her to pay her share of the rent.总是得发给她一份最后催缴通知,她才付应该交的房租。
7 vascular cidw6     
  • The mechanism of this anomalous vascular response is unknown.此种不规则的血管反应的机制尚不清楚。
  • The vascular changes interfere with diffusion of nutrients from plasma into adjacent perivascular tissue and cells.这些血管变化干扰了营养物质从血浆中向血管周围邻接的组织和细胞扩散。
8 epidemic 5iTzz     
  • That kind of epidemic disease has long been stamped out.那种传染病早已绝迹。
  • The authorities tried to localise the epidemic.当局试图把流行病限制在局部范围。
9 glucose Fyiyz     
  • I gave him an extra dose of glucose to pep him up.我给他多注射了一剂葡萄糖以增强他的活力。
  • The doctor injected glucose into his patient's veins.医生将葡萄糖注入病人的静脉。
10 marital SBixg     
  • Her son had no marital problems.她的儿子没有婚姻问题。
  • I regret getting involved with my daughter's marital problems;all its done is to bring trouble about my ears.我后悔干涉我女儿的婚姻问题, 现在我所做的一切将给我带来无穷的烦恼。
11 Oxford Wmmz0a     
  • At present he has become a Professor of Chemistry at Oxford.他现在已是牛津大学的化学教授了。
  • This is where the road to Oxford joins the road to London.这是去牛津的路与去伦敦的路的汇合处。
12 obesity Dv1ya     
  • One effect of overeating may be obesity.吃得过多能导致肥胖。
  • Sugar and fat can more easily lead to obesity than some other foods.糖和脂肪比其他食物更容易导致肥胖。
13 diabetes uPnzu     
  • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar.对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
  • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body.糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
14 expectancy tlMys     
  • Japanese people have a very high life expectancy.日本人的平均寿命非常长。
  • The atomosphere of tense expectancy sobered everyone.这种期望的紧张气氛使每个人变得严肃起来。
15 precisely zlWzUb     
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
16 accurately oJHyf     
  • It is hard to hit the ball accurately.准确地击中球很难。
  • Now scientists can forecast the weather accurately.现在科学家们能准确地预报天气。
17 stark lGszd     
  • The young man is faced with a stark choice.这位年轻人面临严峻的抉择。
  • He gave a stark denial to the rumor.他对谣言加以完全的否认。
18 onset bICxF     
  • The drug must be taken from the onset of the infection.这种药必须在感染的最初期就开始服用。
  • Our troops withstood the onset of the enemy.我们的部队抵挡住了敌人的进攻。
19 forum cilx0     
  • They're holding a forum on new ways of teaching history.他们正在举行历史教学讨论会。
  • The organisation would provide a forum where problems could be discussed.这个组织将提供一个可以讨论问题的平台。
20 faculty HhkzK     
  • He has a great faculty for learning foreign languages.他有学习外语的天赋。
  • He has the faculty of saying the right thing at the right time.他有在恰当的时候说恰当的话的才智。