《科学美国人》2020十大新兴技术 上
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2020-11-20 03:38 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
1 Microneedles Could Enable Painless Injections and Blood Draws
Barely visible needles, or "microneedles," are poised1 to usher2 in an era of pain-free injections and blood testing. Whether attached to a syringe or a patch, microneedles prevent pain by avoiding contact with nerve endings. Typically 50 to 2,000 microns in length (about the depth of a sheet of paper) and one to 100 microns wide (about the width of human hair), they penetrate3 the dead, top layer of skin to reach into the epidermis4. But most do not reach or only barely touch the underlying6 dermis5, where the nerve endings lie.
2 Sun-Powered Chemistry Can Turn Carbon Dioxide into Common Materials
The manufacture of many chemicals important to human health and comfort consumes fossil fuels, thereby7 contributing to carbon dioxide emissions8 and climate change. A new approach employs sunlight to convert waste carbon dioxide into these needed chemicals.
This process is becoming increasingly feasible thanks to advances in sunlight-activated catalysts9, or photocatalysts. In recent years investigators10 have developed photocatalysts that break the resistant11 double bond between carbon and oxygen in carbon dioxide. This is a critical first step in creating "solar" refineries12 that produce useful compounds from the waste gas -- including "platform" molecules13 that can serve as raw materials for the synthesis of such varied14 products as medicines, detergents15, fertilizers and textiles.
3 Virtual Patients Could Revolutionize Medicine
What if computers could replace patients as well? If virtual humans could have replaced real people in some stages of a coronavirus vaccine16 trial, for instance, it could have sped development of a preventive tool and slowed down the pandemic. These are some of the benefits of "in silico medicine," or the testing of drugs and treatments on virtual organs or body systems to predict how a real person will respond to the therapies. For the foreseeable future, real patients will be needed in late-stage studies, but in silico trials will make it possible to conduct quick and inexpensive first assessments17 of safety and efficacy, drastically reducing the number of live human subjects required for experimentation18.
4 Spatial19 Computing20 Could Be the Next Big Thing
Imagine Martha, an octogenarian who lives independently and uses a wheelchair. As Martha moves from her bedroom to the kitchen, the lights switch on, and the ambient temperature adjusts. The chair will slow if her cat crosses her path. If she begins to fall when getting into bed, her furniture shifts to protect her, and an alert goes to her son and the local monitoring station.
The "spatial computing" at the heart of this scene is the next step in the ongoing21 convergence of the physical and digital worlds. It does everything virtual-reality and augmented-reality apps do: digitize objects that connect via the cloud; allow sensors22 and motors to react to one another; and digitally represent the real world. Then it combines these capabilities23 with high-fidelity spatial mapping to enable a computer "coordinator24" to track and control the movements and interactions of objects as a person navigates25 through the digital or physical world. Spatial computing will soon bring human-machine and machine-machine interactions to new levels of efficiency in many walks of life, among them industry, health care, transportation and the home.
5 Digital Medicine Can Diagnose and Treat What Ails26 You
A raft of apps in use or under development can now detect or monitor mental and physical disorders27 autonomously28 or directly administer therapies. Collectively known as digital medicines, the software can both enhance traditional medical care and support patients when access to health care is limited—a need that the COVID-19 crisis has exacerbated29.


1 poised SlhzBU     
  • The hawk poised in mid-air ready to swoop. 老鹰在半空中盘旋,准备俯冲。
  • Tina was tense, her hand poised over the telephone. 蒂娜心情紧张,手悬在电话机上。
2 usher sK2zJ     
  • The usher seated us in the front row.引座员让我们在前排就座。
  • They were quickly ushered away.他们被迅速领开。
3 penetrate juSyv     
  • Western ideas penetrate slowly through the East.西方观念逐渐传入东方。
  • The sunshine could not penetrate where the trees were thickest.阳光不能透入树木最浓密的地方。
4 epidermis AZhzW     
  • The external layer of skin is called the epidermis.皮的外层叫表皮。
  • There is a neoplasm originating in his leg's epidermis.他的腿上有个生长在表皮上的肿瘤。
5 dermis xugzoW     
  • The dermis is composed of the connective tissue that supports the epidermis.真皮是由支撑表皮的结蒂组织构成的。
  • Althouth very thin,the epidermis serves to protect the underlying dermis.表皮虽然非常薄,却可用来保护下层的真皮。
6 underlying 5fyz8c     
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
7 thereby Sokwv     
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我从未去过那座城市,因此对它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英国公民,因而得到了投票权。
8 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名词复数 ); 散发物(尤指气体)
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多数科学家都相信气候变化与排放的含碳气体有关。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危险的辐射物从钚放散出来。
9 catalysts 677fdea123458fc2ff92eb84d07254e9     
n.催化剂( catalyst的名词复数 );触媒;促进因素;有感染力的人
  • The first catalytic converters were called conventional oxidation catalysts. 最初的转化器叫做常规氧化催化器。 来自辞典例句
  • Many processes that are essential to the chemical industry use heterogeneous catalysts. 很多重要的化学工业过程就是使用多相催化剂的。 来自辞典例句
10 investigators e970f9140785518a87fc81641b7c89f7     
n.调查者,审查者( investigator的名词复数 )
  • This memo could be the smoking gun that investigators have been looking for. 这份备忘录可能是调查人员一直在寻找的证据。
  • The team consisted of six investigators and two secretaries. 这个团队由六个调查人员和两个秘书组成。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 resistant 7Wvxh     
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
12 refineries f6f752d4dedfa84ee0eead1d97a27bb2     
精炼厂( refinery的名词复数 )
  • The efforts on closedown and suspension of small sugar refineries, small saccharin refineries and small paper mills are also being carried out in steps. 关停小糖厂、小糖精厂、小造纸厂的工作也已逐步展开。
  • Hence the sitting of refineries is at a distance from population centres. 所以,炼油厂的厂址总在远离人口集中的地方。
13 molecules 187c25e49d45ad10b2f266c1fa7a8d49     
分子( molecule的名词复数 )
  • The structure of molecules can be seen under an electron microscope. 分子的结构可在电子显微镜下观察到。
  • Inside the reactor the large molecules are cracked into smaller molecules. 在反应堆里,大分子裂变为小分子。
14 varied giIw9     
  • The forms of art are many and varied.艺术的形式是多种多样的。
  • The hotel has a varied programme of nightly entertainment.宾馆有各种晚间娱乐活动。
15 detergents 2f4a6c42e9c2663b781bda4f769407b9     
n.洗涤剂( detergent的名词复数 )
  • Such detergents do not yellow the wool as alkali tends to do. 这种洗涤剂不会象碱那样使羊毛发黄。 来自辞典例句
  • Development of detergents has required optimization of the surfactants structure. 发展洗涤剂时,要求使用最恰当的表面活性剂结构。 来自辞典例句
16 vaccine Ki1wv     
  • The polio vaccine has saved millions of lives.脊髓灰质炎疫苗挽救了数以百万计的生命。
  • She takes a vaccine against influenza every fall.她每年秋季接种流感疫苗。
17 assessments 7d0657785d6e5832f8576c61c78262ef     
n.评估( assessment的名词复数 );评价;(应偿付金额的)估定;(为征税对财产所作的)估价
  • He was shrewd in his personal assessments. 他总能对人作出精明的评价。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Surveys show about two-thirds use such assessments, while half employ personality tests. 调查表明,约有三分之二的公司采用了这种测评;而一半的公司则采用工作人员个人品质测试。 来自百科语句
18 experimentation rm6x1     
  • Many people object to experimentation on animals.许多人反对用动物做实验。
  • Study and analysis are likely to be far cheaper than experimentation.研究和分析的费用可能要比实验少得多。
19 spatial gvcww     
  • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects.大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
  • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement.他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
20 computing tvBzxs     
  • to work in computing 从事信息处理
  • Back in the dark ages of computing, in about 1980, they started a software company. 早在计算机尚未普及的时代(约1980年),他们就创办了软件公司。
21 ongoing 6RvzT     
  • The problem is ongoing.这个问题尚未解决。
  • The issues raised in the report relate directly to Age Concern's ongoing work in this area.报告中提出的问题与“关心老人”组织在这方面正在做的工作有直接的关系。
22 sensors 029aee483db9ae244d7a5cb353e74602     
n.传感器,灵敏元件( sensor的名词复数 )
  • There were more than 2000 sensors here. 这里装有两千多个灵敏元件。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Significant changes have been noted where sensors were exposed to trichloride. 当传感器暴露在三氯化物中时,有很大变化。 来自辞典例句
23 capabilities f7b11037f2050959293aafb493b7653c     
n.能力( capability的名词复数 );可能;容量;[复数]潜在能力
  • He was somewhat pompous and had a high opinion of his own capabilities. 他有点自大,自视甚高。 来自辞典例句
  • Some programmers use tabs to break complex product capabilities into smaller chunks. 一些程序员认为,标签可以将复杂的功能分为每个窗格一组简单的功能。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
24 coordinator Gvazk6     
  • The UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, headed by the Emergency Relief Coordinator, coordinates all UN emergency relief. 联合国人道主义事务协调厅在紧急救济协调员领导下,负责协调联合国的所有紧急救济工作。
  • How am I supposed to find the client-relations coordinator? 我怎么才能找到客户关系协调员的办公室?
25 navigates 958df1f5bfaf5943d4890ea6c3cd4bd4     
v.给(船舶、飞机等)引航,导航( navigate的第三人称单数 );(从海上、空中等)横越;横渡;飞跃
  • Dolpins also navigates by some kind of echo system. 原来海豚也是借助某种回声系统寻向的。 来自辞典例句
  • Navigates in menus, lists, choice screens and into edited texts. 可以操纵菜单、列表、屏幕选项和进入编辑文本。 来自互联网
26 ails c1d673fb92864db40e1d98aae003f6db     
v.生病( ail的第三人称单数 );感到不舒服;处境困难;境况不佳
  • He will not concede what anything ails his business. 他不允许任何事情来干扰他的工作。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Measles ails the little girl. 麻疹折磨着这个小女孩。 来自《简明英汉词典》
27 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
28 autonomously 7d7df118f987129bac059bd8fe8107ed     
adv. 自律地,自治地
  • To learn autonomously in the network environment is totally new to students. 基于网络环境下的自主学习对学生来说,是一种全新的学习方式。
  • The QC-RS can operate autonomously or by remote control. QC-RS能实现自动操作或通过遥控来操作。
29 exacerbated 93c37be5dc6e60a8bbd0f2eab618d2eb     
v.使恶化,使加重( exacerbate的过去式和过去分词 )
  • The symptoms may be exacerbated by certain drugs. 这些症状可能会因为某些药物而加重。
  • The drugs they gave her only exacerbated the pain. 他们给她吃的药只是加重了她的痛楚。 来自《简明英汉词典》
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