《科学美国人》2020十大新兴技术 下
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2020-11-20 03:38 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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6 Electric Aviation Could Be Closer Than You Think
 
In 2019 air travel accounted for 2.5 percent of global carbon emissions1, a number that could triple by 2050. While some airlines have started offsetting2 their contributions to atmospheric3 carbon, significant cutbacks are still needed. Electric airplanes could provide the scale of transformation4 required, and many companies are racing5 to develop them. Not only would electric propulsion motors eliminate direct carbon emissions, they could reduce fuel costs by up to 90 percent, maintenance by up to 50 percent and noise by nearly 70 percent.
 
7 Low-Carbon Cement Can Help Combat Climate Change
 
Concrete, the most widely used human-made material. The manufacture of one of its key components6, cement, creates a substantial yet underappreciated amount of human-produced carbon dioxide: up to 8 percent of the global total, according to London-based think tank Chatham House.
 
In 2018 the Global Cement and Concrete Association, which represents about 30 percent of worldwide production, announced the industry's first Sustainability Guidelines, a set of key measurements such as emissions and water usage intended to track performance improvements and make them transparent7.
 
8 Quantum Sensors8 Could Let Autonomous9 Cars 'See' around Corners
 
Quantum computers get all the hype, but quantum sensors could be equally transformative, enabling autonomous vehicles that can "see" around corners, underwater navigation systems, early-warning systems for volcanic10 activity and earthquakes, and portable scanners that monitor a person's brain activity during daily life.
 
Quantum sensors reach extreme levels of precision by exploiting the quantum nature of matter. Atomic clocks illustrate11 this principle. Other quantum sensors use atomic transitions to detect minuscule12 changes in motion and tiny differences in gravitational, electric and magnetic fields.
 
9 Green Hydrogen Could Fill Big Gaps in Renewable Energy
 
When hydrogen burns, the only by-product13 is water—which is why hydrogen has been an alluring14 zero-carbon energy source for decades. Yet the traditional process for producing hydrogen, in which fossil fuels are exposed to steam, is not even remotely zero-carbon.
 
Green hydrogen is different. It is produced through electrolysis, in which machines split water into hydrogen and oxygen, with no other by-products. Historically, electrolysis required so much electricity that it made little sense to produce hydrogen that way. The situation is changing for two reasons. First, significant amounts of excess renewable electricity have become available at grid15 scale; the extra electricity can be used to drive the electrolysis of water, "storing" the electricity in the form of hydrogen. Second, electrolyzers are getting more efficient.
 
10 Whole-Genome Synthesis Will Transform Cell Engineering
 
Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists in China uploaded the virus's genetic16 sequence to genetic databases. A Swiss group then synthesized the entire genome and produced the virus from it—essentially teleporting the virus into their laboratory for study without having to wait for physical samples. Such speed is one example of how whole-genome printing is advancing medicine and other endeavors.
 
 
Whole-genome synthesis is an extension of the booming field of synthetic17 biology. Researchers use software to design genetic sequences that they produce and introduce into a microbe, thereby18 reprogramming the microbe to do desired work—such as making a new medicine. So far genomes mainly get light edits. But improvements in synthesis technology and software are making it possible to print ever larger swaths of genetic material and to alter genomes more extensively.


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1 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名词复数 ); 散发物(尤指气体)
参考例句:
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多数科学家都相信气候变化与排放的含碳气体有关。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危险的辐射物从钚放散出来。
2 offsetting c005dfe34c894146c623d2dd18e54b55     
n.偏置法v.抵消( offset的现在分词 );补偿;(为了比较的目的而)把…并列(或并置);为(管道等)装支管
参考例句:
  • Dealers, having concluded a forward contract, should always hedge with an offsetting contract. 外汇经营商在签订了一项远期合同之后总是应进行套头交易签订一项相抵合同。 来自辞典例句
  • Where does Germany think offsetting shifts into greater external deficits might occur? 在德国看来,这么大的外部赤字应该转移到哪里? 来自互联网
3 atmospheric 6eayR     
adj.大气的,空气的;大气层的;大气所引起的
参考例句:
  • Sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation are strongly coupled.海洋表面温度与大气环流是密切相关的。
  • Clouds return radiant energy to the surface primarily via the atmospheric window.云主要通过大气窗区向地表辐射能量。
4 transformation SnFwO     
n.变化;改造;转变
参考例句:
  • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook.上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
  • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband.他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
5 racing 1ksz3w     
n.竞赛,赛马;adj.竞赛用的,赛马用的
参考例句:
  • I was watching the racing on television last night.昨晚我在电视上看赛马。
  • The two racing drivers fenced for a chance to gain the lead.两个赛车手伺机竞相领先。
6 components 4725dcf446a342f1473a8228e42dfa48     
(机器、设备等的)构成要素,零件,成分; 成分( component的名词复数 ); [物理化学]组分; [数学]分量; (混合物的)组成部分
参考例句:
  • the components of a machine 机器部件
  • Our chemistry teacher often reduces a compound to its components in lab. 在实验室中化学老师常把化合物分解为各种成分。
7 transparent Smhwx     
adj.明显的,无疑的;透明的
参考例句:
  • The water is so transparent that we can see the fishes swimming.水清澈透明,可以看到鱼儿游来游去。
  • The window glass is transparent.窗玻璃是透明的。
8 sensors 029aee483db9ae244d7a5cb353e74602     
n.传感器,灵敏元件( sensor的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • There were more than 2000 sensors here. 这里装有两千多个灵敏元件。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Significant changes have been noted where sensors were exposed to trichloride. 当传感器暴露在三氯化物中时,有很大变化。 来自辞典例句
9 autonomous DPyyv     
adj.自治的;独立的
参考例句:
  • They proudly declared themselves part of a new autonomous province.他们自豪地宣布成为新自治省的一部分。
  • This is a matter that comes within the jurisdiction of the autonomous region.这件事是属于自治区权限以内的事务。
10 volcanic BLgzQ     
adj.火山的;象火山的;由火山引起的
参考例句:
  • There have been several volcanic eruptions this year.今年火山爆发了好几次。
  • Volcanic activity has created thermal springs and boiling mud pools.火山活动产生了温泉和沸腾的泥浆池。
11 illustrate IaRxw     
v.举例说明,阐明;图解,加插图
参考例句:
  • The company's bank statements illustrate its success.这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。
  • This diagram will illustrate what I mean.这个图表可说明我的意思。
12 minuscule V76zS     
adj.非常小的;极不重要的
参考例句:
  • The human race only a minuscule portion of the earth's history.人类只有占有极小部分地球历史。
  • As things stand,Hong Kong's renminbi banking system is minuscule.就目前的情况而言,香港的人民币银行体系可谓微不足道。
13 by-product nSayP     
n.副产品,附带产生的结果
参考例句:
  • Freedom is the by-product of economic surplus.自由是经济盈余的副产品。
  • The raw material for the tyre is a by-product of petrol refining.制造轮胎的原材料是提炼汽油时产生的一种副产品。
14 alluring zzUz1U     
adj.吸引人的,迷人的
参考例句:
  • The life in a big city is alluring for the young people. 大都市的生活对年轻人颇具诱惑力。
  • Lisette's large red mouth broke into a most alluring smile. 莉莎特的鲜红的大嘴露出了一副极为诱人的微笑。
15 grid 5rPzpK     
n.高压输电线路网;地图坐标方格;格栅
参考例句:
  • In this application,the carrier is used to encapsulate the grid.在这种情况下,要用载体把格栅密封起来。
  • Modern gauges consist of metal foil in the form of a grid.现代应变仪则由网格形式的金属片组成。
16 genetic PgIxp     
adj.遗传的,遗传学的
参考例句:
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
17 synthetic zHtzY     
adj.合成的,人工的;综合的;n.人工制品
参考例句:
  • We felt the salesman's synthetic friendliness.我们感觉到那位销售员的虚情假意。
  • It's a synthetic diamond.这是人造钻石。
18 thereby Sokwv     
adv.因此,从而
参考例句:
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我从未去过那座城市,因此对它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英国公民,因而得到了投票权。
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