Lung cancer genetics unravelled 肺癌患病的基因原因被发现
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2009-08-21 03:13 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

The genetics underpinning3 a smoker4's risk of developing lung cancer have been further unpicked by UK scientists.


Smoking is the cause of most lung cancers
Smoking is the cause of most lung cancers

Three areas of DNA5 were found to be linked with lung cancer risk in smokers6 - two of them influencing the type of cancer which develops.

It supports previous studies which have suggested a family link, even after taking smoking into account, a report in the Cancer Research journal says.

Smoking is responsible for nine out of 10 cases of lung cancer.

The Institute of Cancer Research team compared the DNA of 1,900 lung cancer patients and 1,400 healthy individuals.

Information gathered on areas of genetic2 risk was then tested further in another 2,000 patients with lung cancer and a similar number of healthy volunteers.

Specific differences associated with lung cancer risk were found on chromosomes8(染色体) 5, 6 and 15.

Those with certain genetic changes on chromosome7 5 were more likely to get a type of cancer called adenocarcinoma(腺癌) and the region highlighted on chromosome 6 seemed to influence whether a patient developed adenocarcinoma or another type called squamous cell carcinoma(扁平上皮癌,鳞状细胞癌).

On chromosome 15, they pinpointed9 two independent sites that have a role in whether or not a smoker develops lung cancer.

These areas of the genome contain a family of genes11 that influence smoking behaviour but also cell growth and cell death.

Current or former smokers who carry one copy of each of these genetic variants12 increase their risk of lung cancer by 28%.

That increases to 80% in smokers who carry two copies.

Those who had the genetic changes but did not smoke had no increased risk of lung cancer.


Study leader Professor Richard Houlston said the findings confirmed earlier research.

"The next step is to dig deeper to pinpoint10(精确地找到,准确地轰炸) which gene1, or genes in these regions, cause the increased risk of developing lung cancer and how they actually trigger this increase."

Dr Lesley Walker, director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK who partly funded the research, said smoking was responsible for the vast majority of lung cancers.

"This research shows that inherited(继承的,遗传的) genetic variation accounts for some of this risk and the type of lung cancer that develops."

She added: "The best thing a smoker can do to reduce their risk of lung cancer, and a range of other life-threatening conditions, is to quit."

Dr Noemi Eiser, honorary medical director of the British Lung Foundation, said: "This research is very interesting as it provides further clues as to why some smokers are more prone13 to(倾于) developing certain types of lung cancer.

"We now hope that with more research this discovery will lead to the development of early screening techniques and treatments for lung cancer, which is currently the UK's biggest cancer killer14."


1 gene WgKxx     
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
2 genetic PgIxp     
  • It's very difficult to treat genetic diseases.遗传性疾病治疗起来很困难。
  • Each daughter cell can receive a full complement of the genetic information.每个子细胞可以收到遗传信息的一个完全补偿物。
3 underpinning 7431aa77983d1e766a4ef27b6d3f1735     
n.基础材料;基础结构;(学说、理论等的)基础;(人的)腿v.用砖石结构等从下面支撑(墙等)( underpin的现在分词 );加固(墙等)的基础;为(论据、主张等)打下基础;加强
  • Underpinning this success has been an exemplary record of innovation. 具有典范性的创新确保了这次成功。 来自辞典例句
  • But underpinning Mr Armstrong's technology changes is a human touch. 但阿姆斯特朗技术变革的支柱是人情味。 来自互联网
4 smoker GiqzKx     
  • His wife dislikes him to be a smoker.他妻子不喜欢他当烟民。
  • He is a moderate smoker.他是一个有节制的烟民。
5 DNA 4u3z1l     
(缩)deoxyribonucleic acid 脱氧核糖核酸
  • DNA is stored in the nucleus of a cell.脱氧核糖核酸储存于细胞的细胞核里。
  • Gene mutations are alterations in the DNA code.基因突变是指DNA密码的改变。
6 smokers d3e72c6ca3bac844ba5aa381bd66edba     
吸烟者( smoker的名词复数 )
  • Many smokers who are chemically addicted to nicotine cannot cut down easily. 许多有尼古丁瘾的抽烟人不容易把烟戒掉。
  • Chain smokers don't care about the dangers of smoking. 烟鬼似乎不在乎吸烟带来的种种危害。
7 chromosome 7rUzX     
  • Chromosome material with exhibits of such behaviour is called heterochromatin.表现这种现象的染色体物质叫做异染色质。
  • A segment of the chromosome may become lost,resulting in a deletion.染色体的一个片段可能会丢失,结果产生染色体的缺失。
8 chromosomes 11783d79c0016b60332bbf1856b3f77d     
n.染色体( chromosome的名词复数 )
  • Chromosomes also determine the sex of animals. 染色体也决定动物的性别。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Each of four chromosomes divide longitudinally. 四种染色体的每一种都沿着纵向分裂。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
9 pinpointed e23273e2459d3a2f113ef7cdb8d1c728     
准确地找出或描述( pinpoint的过去式和过去分词 ); 为…准确定位
  • His refusal to help simply pinpointed his cowardice. 他拒绝帮助正显示他的胆小。
  • Computers pinpointed where the shells were coming from. 计算机确定了炮弹发射的位置。
10 pinpoint xNExL     
  • It is difficult to pinpoint when water problems of the modern age began.很难准确地指出,现代用水的问题是什么时候出现的。
  • I could pinpoint his precise location on a map.我能在地图上指明他的准确位置。
11 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
12 variants 796e0e5ff8114b13b2e23cde9d3c6904     
n.变体( variant的名词复数 );变种;变型;(词等的)变体
  • Those variants will be preserved in the'struggle for existence". 这些变异将在“生存竞争”中被保留下来。 来自辞典例句
  • Like organisms, viruses have variants, generally called strains. 与其他生物一样,病毒也有变种,一般称之为株系。 来自辞典例句
13 prone 50bzu     
  • Some people are prone to jump to hasty conclusions.有些人往往作出轻率的结论。
  • He is prone to lose his temper when people disagree with him.人家一不同意他的意见,他就发脾气。
14 killer rpLziK     
  • Heart attacks have become Britain's No.1 killer disease.心脏病已成为英国的头号致命疾病。
  • The bulk of the evidence points to him as her killer.大量证据证明是他杀死她的。
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