克里斯托弗·马洛(Christopher Marlowe)生平简介
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2020-03-19 07:18 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
Christopher Marlowe was an English playwright1, poet, and translator of the Elizabethan era. He was born in Canterbury, England, in 1564. He died young at the age of twenty-nine and his career as a playwright lasted only six years. His work, particularly, the play The Tragicall History of Doctor Faustus, secured his lasting2 legacy3. His achievement had a great impact on William Shakespeare, who was born in the same year as Marlowe and who rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early death.
Early life
Marlowe was born in Canterbury to shoemaker John Marlowe and his wife Catherine. His date of birth is not known but he was baptized on February 26th, 1564 and is likely to have been born a few days before, making him two months older than William Shakespeare, who was baptized on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Marlowe attended The King's School in Canterbury and Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, where he studied on a scholarship and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1584. In 1587, the university hesitated to award him his Master of Arts degree because of a rumor4 that he had converted to Roman Catholicism and would soon attend college elsewhere. These rumors5 were set to rest and Marlowe was awarded his Master of Arts when the Privy6 Council intervened on his behalf, praising him for his "faithful dealing7" and "good service" to the Queen. The nature of Marlowe's service was not specified8 by the Council, but its letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked considerable speculation9, particularly the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham. No direct evidence supports this theory, although the Council's letter itself is evidence that Marlowe had served the government in some secret capacity.
Marlowe as a spy
Some biographers think that Marlowe was a government spy. His frequent lengthy10 absences from university and the Privy Council's intervention11 to the university to grant him his Master's degree in spite of the rumor that he had converted to catholicism have provoked much speculation that Marlow had become a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham's intelligence service. In the absence of hard evidence that he was, in fact, a spy, the debate is still active about the nature of his service to the queen. What biographers are certain about is that after attaining12 his master's degree, Marlowe moved to London and took up writing full-time13.
Literary work
In spite of his short life, Christopher Marlowe wrote many successful plays in an incredibly short six-year literary career. Some scholars contend that Marlowe started writing for the theater after 1587 while occasionally serving the government. Marlowe's plays are known for the use of blank verse and their overreaching protagonists14 and controversial themes. His first play, Dido, Queen of Carthage, was not published until 1594. The play was performed by the Children of the Chapel15, a company of boy actors, between 1587 and 1593. His second play was the two-part Tamburlaine the Great (c. 1587; published 1590). This was Marlowe's first play to be performed on the regular stage in London and is among the first English plays in blank verse. Marlowe's most famous play is The Tragicall History of Doctor. It is based on the German Faustbuch, Doctor Faustus. It is seen as the first dramatized version of the Faust legend, in which a man sells his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge and power.
Complete list of Marlowe's plays:
Dido, Queen of Carthage (c. 1586) (possibly co-written with Thomas Nashe)
The story focuses on the classical figure of Dido, the Queen of Carthage. It tells an intense dramatic tale of Dido and her fanatical love for Aeneas (induced by Cupid), Aeneas' betrayal of her and her eventual16 suicide on his departure for Italy.
Tamburlaine, part 1 (c. 1587), part 2 (c. 1587–1588)
Tamburlaine the Great (part I) is about the conqueror17 Timur (Tamerlane), who rises from shepherd to warlord. It is among the first English plays in blank verse, and with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy, is generally considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre. Tamburlaine was a success and was followed by Tamburlaine the Great, Part II.
The Jew of Malta (c. 1589)
A play about the Jew Barabas' barbarous revenge against the city authorities, has a prologue18 delivered by a character representing Machiavelli.
Doctor Faustus (c. 1589, or, c. 1593)
It is based on the German Faustbuch. It was the first dramatized version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil.
Edward II (c. 1592)
This is one of the earliest English history plays. It focusses on the relationship between King Edward II of England and Piers19 Gaveston, and Edward's murder on the orders of Roger Mortimer.
The Massacre20 at Paris (c. 1593)
It is thought to be his last play, and probably written about 1593. It is about the slaughter21 of Protestants on Saint Bartholomew's Day in Paris in 1572. The text is significantly flawed and is likely an actor's recollection of the play rather than the text as Marlowe actually wrote it.
Arrest and death
Marlowe was arrested for 'atheism22' or 'heresy23' on Sunday, May 20, 1593. At that time heresy was a serious crime that would end up with a grave penalty, namely burning at the stake. Although the offense24 was grave, Marlowe was not imprisoned25 or tortured. He was set free on the condition that he report daily to an officer of the court.
Strangely, however, Marlowe was killed by Ingram Frizer on May 30. Frizer was with Nicholas Skeres and Robert Poley, and all three men were tied to one of the Walsinghams--either Sir Francis Walsingham, the man who hired him to work for the secret service of the queen, or a relative of his, presumably also a spy.


1 playwright 8Ouxo     
  • Gwyn Thomas was a famous playwright.格温·托马斯是著名的剧作家。
  • The playwright was slaughtered by the press.这位剧作家受到新闻界的无情批判。
2 lasting IpCz02     
  • The lasting war debased the value of the dollar.持久的战争使美元贬值。
  • We hope for a lasting settlement of all these troubles.我们希望这些纠纷能获得永久的解决。
3 legacy 59YzD     
  • They are the most precious cultural legacy our forefathers left.它们是我们祖先留下来的最宝贵的文化遗产。
  • He thinks the legacy is a gift from the Gods.他认为这笔遗产是天赐之物。
4 rumor qS0zZ     
  • The rumor has been traced back to a bad man.那谣言经追查是个坏人造的。
  • The rumor has taken air.谣言流传开了。
5 rumors 2170bcd55c0e3844ecb4ef13fef29b01     
n.传闻( rumor的名词复数 );[古]名誉;咕哝;[古]喧嚷v.传闻( rumor的第三人称单数 );[古]名誉;咕哝;[古]喧嚷
  • Rumors have it that the school was burned down. 有谣言说学校给烧掉了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Rumors of a revolt were afloat. 叛变的谣言四起。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 privy C1OzL     
  • Only three people,including a policeman,will be privy to the facts.只会允许3个人,其中包括一名警察,了解这些内情。
  • Very few of them were privy to the details of the conspiracy.他们中很少有人知道这一阴谋的详情。
7 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
8 specified ZhezwZ     
  • The architect specified oak for the wood trim. 那位建筑师指定用橡木做木饰条。
  • It is generated by some specified means. 这是由某些未加说明的方法产生的。
9 speculation 9vGwe     
  • Her mind is occupied with speculation.她的头脑忙于思考。
  • There is widespread speculation that he is going to resign.人们普遍推测他要辞职。
10 lengthy f36yA     
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我们对这个题目进行了长时间的充分讨论。
  • The professor wrote a lengthy book on Napoleon.教授写了一部有关拿破仑的巨著。
11 intervention e5sxZ     
  • The government's intervention in this dispute will not help.政府对这场争论的干预不会起作用。
  • Many people felt he would be hostile to the idea of foreign intervention.许多人觉得他会反对外来干预。
12 attaining da8a99bbb342bc514279651bdbe731cc     
(通常经过努力)实现( attain的现在分词 ); 达到; 获得; 达到(某年龄、水平、状况)
  • Jim is halfway to attaining his pilot's licence. 吉姆就快要拿到飞行员执照了。
  • By that time she was attaining to fifty. 那时她已快到五十岁了。
13 full-time SsBz42     
  • A full-time job may be too much for her.全天工作她恐怕吃不消。
  • I don't know how she copes with looking after her family and doing a full-time job.既要照顾家庭又要全天工作,我不知道她是如何对付的。
14 protagonists 97ecb64549899e35afb8e0bac92230bc     
n.(戏剧的)主角( protagonist的名词复数 );(故事的)主人公;现实事件(尤指冲突和争端的)主要参与者;领导者
  • Mrs Pankhurst was one of the chief protagonists of women's rights. 潘克赫斯特太太是女权的主要倡导者之一。 来自辞典例句
  • This reflects that Feng Menglong heartily sympathized with these protagonists. 这反映出冯梦龙由衷地同情书中的这些主要人物。 来自互联网
15 chapel UXNzg     
  • The nimble hero,skipped into a chapel that stood near.敏捷的英雄跳进近旁的一座小教堂里。
  • She was on the peak that Sunday afternoon when she played in chapel.那个星期天的下午,她在小教堂的演出,可以说是登峰造极。
16 eventual AnLx8     
  • Several schools face eventual closure.几所学校面临最终关闭。
  • Both parties expressed optimism about an eventual solution.双方对问题的最终解决都表示乐观。
17 conqueror PY3yI     
  • We shall never yield to a conqueror.我们永远不会向征服者低头。
  • They abandoned the city to the conqueror.他们把那个城市丢弃给征服者。
18 prologue mRpxq     
  • A poor wedding is a prologue to misery.不幸的婚姻是痛苦的开始。
  • The prologue to the novel is written in the form of a newspaper account.这本小说的序言是以报纸报道的形式写的。
19 piers 97df53049c0dee20e54484371e5e225c     
n.水上平台( pier的名词复数 );(常设有娱乐场所的)突堤;柱子;墙墩
  • Most road bridges have piers rising out of the vally. 很多公路桥的桥墩是从河谷里建造起来的。 来自辞典例句
  • At these piers coasters and landing-craft would be able to discharge at all states of tide. 沿岸航行的海船和登陆艇,不论潮汐如何涨落,都能在这种码头上卸载。 来自辞典例句
20 massacre i71zk     
  • There was a terrible massacre of villagers here during the war.在战争中,这里的村民惨遭屠杀。
  • If we forget the massacre,the massacre will happen again!忘记了大屠杀,大屠杀就有可能再次发生!
21 slaughter 8Tpz1     
  • I couldn't stand to watch them slaughter the cattle.我不忍看他们宰牛。
  • Wholesale slaughter was carried out in the name of progress.大规模的屠杀在维护进步的名义下进行。
22 atheism vvVzU     
  • Atheism is the opinion that there is no God.无神论是认为不存在上帝的看法。
  • Atheism is a hot topic.无神论是个热门话题。
23 heresy HdDza     
  • We should denounce a heresy.我们应该公开指责异端邪说。
  • It might be considered heresy to suggest such a notion.提出这样一个观点可能会被视为异端邪说。
24 offense HIvxd     
  • I hope you will not take any offense at my words. 对我讲的话请别见怪。
  • His words gave great offense to everybody present.他的发言冲犯了在场的所有人。
25 imprisoned bc7d0bcdd0951055b819cfd008ef0d8d     
下狱,监禁( imprison的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He was imprisoned for two concurrent terms of 30 months and 18 months. 他被判处30个月和18个月的监禁,合并执行。
  • They were imprisoned for possession of drugs. 他们因拥有毒品而被监禁。
TAG标签: 名人传记