February 2
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Soldiers in Stalingrad fought in temperatures as low as -30
1943: Germans surrender at Stalingrad
England have

The Soviet1 Government has announced the final defeat of the German 6th Army at the port of Stalingrad, in southern Russia.

A statement late this evening said: "Our forces have now completed theliquidationof the German Fascist2 troops encircled in the area of Stalingrad.

"The last centre of enemy resistance in the Stalingrad area has thus been crushed."

The declaration brings to an end five months of heavy fighting for the city. The battle has been described as among the most terrible of the war so far.

Another 45,000 German soldiers have been taken prisoner in the last two days, bringing the total in custody3 to over 90,000 officers and men.

The prisoners are understood to be in an appalling4 condition after enduring months of starvation in temperatures down to -30.

They are the remains5 of the 330,000-strong German force sent to take Stalingrad.

The rest - about a quarter of a million men - have died, as many from illness, starvation and frostbite than from the fighting itself.

The 6th Army has been trapped inside the city, completely surrounded by the Red Army, for almost three months during the harshest part of the Russian winter.

They have had to rely totally on air drops by the Luftwaffe for food.

Atrocious weather conditions have reduced the amount getting through to just 90 tonnes a day - less than a third of what they needed.

The German commander of the 6th Army, Field-Marshal Friedrich Paulus, gave himself up two days ago.

He had been in a hopeless position since early December, when a last-ditch rescue attempt was driven back by Soviet troops.

He was given one earlier chance to surrender, on 8 January, by Soviet Regional Commander, Marshal Rokossovsky.

But Hitler repeated his order to the 6th Army that surrender would not be contemplated6, and two days later the final Soviet offensive began to flush the Germans out of Stalingrad.

Paulus lost his last German-controlled airfield7 ten days later, on 22 January, and with it the last hope of any more regular supplies.

By 29 January the desperately8 weak 6th Army was split into two pockets of men.

The surrender of Field-Marshal Paulus brought the ordeal9 to an end for one of the groups.

The defeat of the second remnant today closes at last one of the most horrific chapters of the war so far.
Mr de Klerk has pledged to free Nelson Mandela
1990: De Klerk dismantles10 apartheid in South Africa
Artificially 1969:
The The President of South Africa has lifted the 30-year ban on leading anti-apartheid group the African National Congress.
President F W De Klerk has announced restrictions11 will be lifted on 33 other anti-apartheid organisations, including the ANC, at the opening of parliament in Cape12 Town.

He also made his first public commitment to release jailed ANC leader Nelson Mandela, but he did not specify13 a date.

Many observers were surprised by the scope of the reforms - which included a return to press freedom and suspension of the death penalty - signalling a partial end to the 25-year-old state of emergency.

Nobel Prize winner Archbishop Desmond Tutu said: "He has taken my breath away".

Mr Mandela's wife, Winnie, remained sceptical.

She said: "We are not going to accept a bone without meat. The unbanning of the ANC, the South African Communist Party and the Pan-African Congress in the prevailing14 South African climate is simply a recipe for further problems."

Other critics complained about the government's failure to completely lift the state of emergency, as the ban on TV and photographic coverage15 of unrest continues.

Mr De Klerk explained this was precautionary so that the authorities could monitor the progress of the reforms.

Speaking about the release of political prisoners, he said: "It does not signify in the least the approval or condoning16 of crimes of terrorism or crimes of violence committed under their banner."

The Conservative opposition17 has demanded a referendum on the white reaction to the new measures.
liquidation: the act of exterminating;the murder of a competitor(清算)


1 Soviet Sw9wR     
  • Zhukov was a marshal of the former Soviet Union.朱可夫是前苏联的一位元帅。
  • Germany began to attack the Soviet Union in 1941.德国在1941年开始进攻苏联。
2 fascist ttGzJZ     
  • The strikers were roughed up by the fascist cops.罢工工人遭到法西斯警察的殴打。
  • They succeeded in overthrowing the fascist dictatorship.他们成功推翻了法西斯独裁统治。
3 custody Qntzd     
  • He spent a week in custody on remand awaiting sentence.等候判决期间他被还押候审一个星期。
  • He was taken into custody immediately after the robbery.抢劫案发生后,他立即被押了起来。
4 appalling iNwz9     
  • The search was hampered by appalling weather conditions.恶劣的天气妨碍了搜寻工作。
  • Nothing can extenuate such appalling behaviour.这种骇人听闻的行径罪无可恕。
5 remains 1kMzTy     
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
6 contemplated d22c67116b8d5696b30f6705862b0688     
adj. 预期的 动词contemplate的过去分词形式
  • The doctor contemplated the difficult operation he had to perform. 医生仔细地考虑他所要做的棘手的手术。
  • The government has contemplated reforming the entire tax system. 政府打算改革整个税收体制。
7 airfield cz9z9Z     
  • The foreign guests were motored from the airfield to the hotel.用车把外宾从机场送到旅馆。
  • The airfield was seized by enemy troops.机场被敌军占领。
8 desperately cu7znp     
  • He was desperately seeking a way to see her again.他正拼命想办法再见她一面。
  • He longed desperately to be back at home.他非常渴望回家。
9 ordeal B4Pzs     
  • She managed to keep her sanity throughout the ordeal.在那场磨难中她始终保持神志正常。
  • Being lost in the wilderness for a week was an ordeal for me.在荒野里迷路一星期对我来说真是一场磨难。
10 dismantles 76b0c77ac73c7066bc640cf2a2b1511a     
拆开( dismantle的第三人称单数 ); 拆卸; 废除; 取消
  • This toy machine gun dismantles easily. 这种玩具机关枪很容易拆卸。
  • By contrast, modern scepticism challenges nobody and dismantles only theories of change. 相反,现代的怀疑主义却并不质疑任何人,仅仅摧毁变革理论。
11 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
12 cape ITEy6     
  • I long for a trip to the Cape of Good Hope.我渴望到好望角去旅行。
  • She was wearing a cape over her dress.她在外套上披着一件披肩。
13 specify evTwm     
  • We should specify a time and a place for the meeting.我们应指定会议的时间和地点。
  • Please specify what you will do.请你详述一下你将做什么。
14 prevailing E1ozF     
  • She wears a fashionable hair style prevailing in the city.她的发型是这个城市流行的款式。
  • This reflects attitudes and values prevailing in society.这反映了社会上盛行的态度和价值观。
15 coverage nvwz7v     
  • There's little coverage of foreign news in the newspaper.报纸上几乎没有国外新闻报道。
  • This is an insurance policy with extensive coverage.这是一项承保范围广泛的保险。
16 condoning 363997b8d741b81bc5d3bbd4cc3c3b74     
v.容忍,宽恕,原谅( condone的现在分词 )
  • I'm not condoning what he did, all right? 我并不是宽恕他的所作所为,好吗? 来自电影对白
  • Communist Party conservatives abhor the idea of condoning explicIt'sex. 党内的保守势力痛恨对赤裸性爱内容的宽容。 来自互联网
17 opposition eIUxU     
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
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