古代人夏日纳凉的4个妙招
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2021-07-19 04:44 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
1. FAN CHAIRS 风扇椅
 
Philadelphia-based musical instrument maker1 John Cram2 invented a clever cooling device in the 1780s. People used their feet to operate the fan that moved above their head, much like someone would power an old sewing machine. Benjamin Franklin reportedly owned one as well, but the device seems to have had limited mass-market appeal.
18世纪80年代,美国费城的乐器匠人约翰·克莱姆发明了一种巧妙的纳凉装置。人们用脚让悬在头顶的风扇转起来,就像运作老式缝纫机一样。据称,本杰明·富兰克林也有一台风扇椅,但是这种设备似乎在大众市场上不太吃香。
 
2. CANVAS AWNINGS3 遮阳篷
 
One thing you immediately notice when looking at photographs of famous buildings before the invention of A/C is that they frequently sported awnings over nearly every window. Going back to antiquity4, awnings provided the shade vital for keeping the sun's heat at bay. In the latter half of the 19th century, new colors and patterns helped make canvas awnings more than a necessary utility: They became a key decorative5 feature of a home.
如果你去看空调尚未被发明时的著名建筑照片,你马上就会注意到几乎每个窗户都带有遮阳蓬。在古代,遮阳蓬对于阻隔日晒十分重要。到了19世纪下半叶,新花色的出现让遮阳蓬不再仅仅是一个实用装置,而是成了房子的重要装饰品。
 
3. PUNKAHS 布屏风扇
 
These hand-operated ceiling fans have their origins in colonial India. Each year thousands of poor seasonal6 workers were contracted, or otherwise compelled, to spend monotonous7 days pulling a cord that swept a piece of fabric8 back and forth9 across a room for the country's elite10.
这种手动操作的吊扇源自殖民时期的印度。那时候印度的权贵每年都会雇佣或强迫数千名穷苦的季节性工人从早到晚机械地重复拉绳子的动作,从而让布屏来回摆动,给屋内带来凉风。
 
4. DRINKING BUTTERMILK 饮用酪乳
 
The Indian subcontinent gave the world another refreshing11 idea for keeping cool in the searing heat: drinking buttermilk. Even today, many varieties of a spiced buttermilk are consumed in Southeast Asia and many diasporic communities around the world. It was also a common refreshment12 in late-19th and early 20th-century North America—the beverage13 was even recommended by physicians.
饮用酪乳这一清凉解暑的创意也来自印度次大陆。直到今天,东南亚和世界各地许多侨区的人都还在饮用各种加了香料的酪乳。酪乳也是19世纪晚期和20世纪早期北美常见的一种提神饮料,甚至连医生也建议人们喝酪乳。


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 maker DALxN     
n.制造者,制造商
参考例句:
  • He is a trouble maker,You must be distant with him.他是个捣蛋鬼,你不要跟他在一起。
  • A cabinet maker must be a master craftsman.家具木工必须是技艺高超的手艺人。
2 cram 6oizE     
v.填塞,塞满,临时抱佛脚,为考试而学习
参考例句:
  • There was such a cram in the church.教堂里拥挤得要命。
  • The room's full,we can't cram any more people in.屋里满满的,再也挤不进去人了。
3 awnings awnings     
篷帐布
参考例句:
  • Striped awnings had been stretched across the courtyard. 一些条纹雨篷撑开架在院子上方。
  • The room, shadowed well with awnings, was dark and cool. 这间屋子外面有这篷挡着,又阴暗又凉快。
4 antiquity SNuzc     
n.古老;高龄;古物,古迹
参考例句:
  • The museum contains the remains of Chinese antiquity.博物馆藏有中国古代的遗物。
  • There are many legends about the heroes of antiquity.有许多关于古代英雄的传说。
5 decorative bxtxc     
adj.装饰的,可作装饰的
参考例句:
  • This ware is suitable for decorative purpose but unsuitable for utility.这种器皿中看不中用。
  • The style is ornate and highly decorative.这种风格很华丽,而且装饰效果很好。
6 seasonal LZ1xE     
adj.季节的,季节性的
参考例句:
  • The town relies on the seasonal tourist industry for jobs.这个城镇依靠季节性旅游业提供就业机会。
  • The hors d'oeuvre is seasonal vegetables.餐前小吃是应时蔬菜。
7 monotonous FwQyJ     
adj.单调的,一成不变的,使人厌倦的
参考例句:
  • She thought life in the small town was monotonous.她觉得小镇上的生活单调而乏味。
  • His articles are fixed in form and monotonous in content.他的文章千篇一律,一个调调儿。
8 fabric 3hezG     
n.织物,织品,布;构造,结构,组织
参考例句:
  • The fabric will spot easily.这种织品很容易玷污。
  • I don't like the pattern on the fabric.我不喜欢那块布料上的图案。
9 forth Hzdz2     
adv.向前;向外,往外
参考例句:
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。
10 elite CqzxN     
n.精英阶层;实力集团;adj.杰出的,卓越的
参考例句:
  • The power elite inside the government is controlling foreign policy.政府内部的一群握有实权的精英控制着对外政策。
  • We have a political elite in this country.我们国家有一群政治精英。
11 refreshing HkozPQ     
adj.使精神振作的,使人清爽的,使人喜欢的
参考例句:
  • I find it'so refreshing to work with young people in this department.我发现和这一部门的青年一起工作令人精神振奋。
  • The water was cold and wonderfully refreshing.水很涼,特别解乏提神。
12 refreshment RUIxP     
n.恢复,精神爽快,提神之事物;(复数)refreshments:点心,茶点
参考例句:
  • He needs to stop fairly often for refreshment.他须时不时地停下来喘口气。
  • A hot bath is a great refreshment after a day's work.在一天工作之后洗个热水澡真是舒畅。
13 beverage 0QgyN     
n.(水,酒等之外的)饮料
参考例句:
  • The beverage is often colored with caramel.这种饮料常用焦糖染色。
  • Beer is a beverage of the remotest time.啤酒是一种最古老的饮料。
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