Sigmund Freud and the dreams
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-12-27 01:14 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Most people often dream at night. When they wake in the morning they say to themselves, “What a strange dream I had! I wonder what made me dream that.”

Sometimes dreams are frightening. Sometimes, in dreams, wishes come true. At other times we are troubled by strange dreams in which the world seems to have been turned upside-down2 and nothing makes sense.

In dreams we do things which we would never do when we're awake. We think and say things we would never think and say. Why are dreams so strange and unfamiliar3? Where do dreams come from?

No one has produced a more satisfying4 answer than a man called Sigmund Freud. He said that dreams come from a part of one's mind which one can neither recognize nor control. He named this the “unconscious5 mind.”

Sigmund Freud was born about a hundred years ago. He lived most of his life in Vienna, Austria7, but ended his days in London, soon after the beginning of the Second World War.

The new worlds Freud explored were inside man himself. For the unconscious mind is like a deep well, full of memories and feelings. These memories and feelings have been stored there from the moment of our birth. Our conscious6 mind has forgotten them. We do not suspect that they are there until some unhappy or unusual experience causes us to remember, or to dream dreams. Then suddenly we see the same thing and feel the same way we felt when we were little children.

This discovery of Freud's is very important if we wish to understand why people act as they do. For the unconscious forces inside us are at least as powerful8 as the conscious forces we know about. Sometimes we do things without knowing why. If we don't, the reasons may lie deep in our unconscious minds.

When Freud was a child he cared about the sufferings of others, so it isn't surprising that he became a doctor when he grew up. He learned9 all about the way in which the human body works10. But he became more and more curious about the human mind. He went to Paris to study with a famous French doctor, Charcot.

At that time it seemed that no one knew very much about the mind. If a person went mad, or 'out of his mind', there was not much that could be done about it. People didn't understand at all what was happening to the madman. Had he been possessed11(控制,掌握) by a devil12 or evil13 spirit? Was God punishing him for wrong-doing? Often such people were shut away from the ordinary people as if they had done some terrible crime14.

This is still true today in many places. Doctors prefer to experiment on those parts of a man which they can see and examine. If you cut a man's head open you can see his brain. But you can't see his thoughts or ideas or dreams. In Freud's day few doctors were interested in these subjects. Freud wanted to know how our minds work. He learned a lot from Charcot.

He returned to Vienna in 1886 and began work as a doctor in nerve15 diseases16. He got married and began to receive more and more patients at home. Most of the patients who came to see him were women. They were over-excited and anxious, sick in mind rather than in body. Medicine did not help them. Freud was full of sympathy17(同情,慰问) but he could do little to make them better.

Then one day a friend, Dr1 Josef Breuer, came to see him. He told Freud about a girl he was looking after. The girl seemed to get better when she was allowed to talk about herself. She told Dr Breuer everything that came into her mind. And each time she talked to him she remembered more about her life as a little child.

Freud was excited when he heard this. He began to try to cure his patients in the same way. He asked about the events of their early childhood. He urged18 them to talk about their own experiences and relationships. He himself said very little.

Often, as he listened, his patients relived moments from their past life. They trembled19(发抖) with anger and fear, hate and love. They acted as though Freud was their father or mother or lover20.

The doctor did not make any attempt to stop them. He quietly accepted whatever they told him, the good things and the bad.

One young woman who came to him couldn't drink anything, although she was very thirsty. Something prevented her from drinking.

Freud discovered the reason for this. One day, as they were talking, the girl remembered having seen a dog drink from her nurse's glass. She hadn't told the nurse, whom she disliked. She had forgotten the whole experience. But suddenly this childhood memory returned to mind. When she had told it all to Dr Freud—the nurse, the dog, the glass of water —the girl was able to drink again.

Freud called this treatment the 'talking cure'. Later it was called psychoanalysis(精神分析) . When patients talked freely21 about the things that were troubling them they often felt better.

The things that patients told him sometimes gave Freud a shock. He discovered that the feelings of very young children are not so different from those of their parents. A small boy may love his mother so much that he wants to kill his father. At the same time he loves his father and is deeply22 ashamed23 of this wish. It is difficult to live with such mixed feelings, so they fade24 away into the unconscious(无意识的) mind and only return in troubled dreams.

It was hard to believe that people could become blind, or lose the power of speech, because of what had happened to them when they were children. Freud was attacked from all sides for what he discovered. But he also found firm friends. Many people believed that he had at last found a way to unlock25 the secrets of the human mind, and to help people who were very miserable26. He had found the answer to many of life's great questions.

He became famous all over the world and taught others to use the talking cure. His influence on modern art, literature and science cannot be measured. People who wrote books and plays, people who painted pictures, people who worked in schools, hospitals and prisons; all these learned something from the great man who discovered a way into the unconscious mind.

Not all of Freud's ideas are accepted today. But others have followed where he led and have helped us to understand ourselves better. Because of him, and them, there is more hope today than there has ever been before for people who were once just called 'crazy'.


1 Dr euozHa     
n.医生,大夫;博士(缩)(= Doctor)
  • Dr.Williams instructs us in botany.威廉博士教我们植物学。
  • The ward of the hospital is in the charge of Dr.Green.医院的这间病房由格林医生负责。
2 upside-down upside-down     
  • They left the room upside-down.他们把房间弄得乱七八糟。
  • The world had turned upside-down.整个世界陷入一片混乱之中。
3 unfamiliar uk6w4     
  • I am unfamiliar with the place and the people here.我在这儿人地生疏。
  • The man seemed unfamiliar to me.这人很面生。
4 satisfying yjXzGe     
adj.令人满意的,令人满足的v.使满意,满足( satisfy的现在分词)
  • It's satisfying to play a game really well. 一种游戏玩得特别好是一桩惬意的事。
  • The book is more satisfying if you read each chapter in sequence. 这本书依次读各章会更好。 来自《简明英汉词典》
5 unconscious glawT     
  • She was unconscious but her heart was still beating.她已经不省人事,但脉搏还在跳。
  • He was unconscious of his mistake.他没意识到自已的错误。
6 conscious VYpzr     
  • I was not conscious of having made a mistake.我没意识到犯了错误。
  • He is badly hurt but still conscious.他伤得很重,不过神志还清醒。
7 Austria SyQzhP     
  • Austria lies to the southeast of Germany.奥地利位于德国东南。
  • I always confuse Australia with Austria.我总是把澳大利亚同奥地利弄混。
8 powerful E1Zzi     
  • The UN began to get more and more powerful.联合国开始变得越来越强大了。
  • Such are the most powerful voices of our times!这些就是我们时代的最有力的声音!
9 learned m1oxn     
  • He went into a rage when he learned about it.他听到这事后勃然大怒。
  • In this little village,he passed for a learned man.在这个小村子里,他被视为有学问的人。
10 works ieuzIh     
  • We expect writers to produce more and better works.我们期望作家们写出更多更好的作品。
  • The novel is regarded as one of the classic works.这篇小说被公认为是最优秀的作品之一。
11 possessed xuyyQ     
  • He flew out of the room like a man possessed.他像着了魔似地猛然冲出房门。
  • He behaved like someone possessed.他行为举止像是魔怔了。
12 devil dlMzu     
  • It is easier to raise the devil than to lay him.召鬼容易驱鬼难。
  • Susie,you're a determined little devil.苏茜,你真是个坚决的小家伙。
13 evil KiHzS     
  • We pray to God to deliver us from evil.我们祈求上帝把我们从罪恶中拯救出来。
  • Love of money is the root of all evil.爱钱是邪恶的根源。
14 crime SzkxN     
  • You'll have to pay for your crime.你得为你的罪行付出代价。
  • Crime in our big cities is on the increase.在我们大城市里犯罪率正在增长。
15 nerve Q1lyX     
  • Did he have the nerve to say that?他竟有脸说这话吗?
  • He never got up enough nerve to meet me.他从没有足够的胆量来见我。
16 diseases 5c749da591474dd5c2c7f1d77b874f5d     
n.疾病( disease的名词复数 );弊端;恶疾;痼疾
  • Smoking is a causative factor in several major diseases. 抽烟是引起几种严重疾病的病因。
  • The illness frequently coexists with other chronic diseases. 这种病往往与其他慢性病同时存在。
17 sympathy WHzzK     
  • He felt great sympathy for these people.他很同情这些人。
  • Sympathy is his best quality.同情心是他最好的品质。
18 urged 2971f82b1ff48468f6758175e7d07255     
v.力劝( urge的过去式和过去分词 );强烈要求;推进;驱策
  • She urged him to stay. 她力劝他留下。
  • Urged on by the PM the police tried to end the strike. 在首相的敦促下,警方力图终止罢工。 来自《简明英汉词典》
19 trembled 9baa2ba21005de744c61dfd847c51428     
v.发抖( tremble的过去式和过去分词 );焦虑;颤动;轻轻摇晃
  • They all trembled at the prospect of an enemy invasion. 他们想到敌人可能入侵都不寒而栗。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The whole house trembled as the train went by. 火车开过时,整座房子都颤动了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
20 lover IA0xx     
  • Every lover sees a thousand graces in the beloved object.情人眼里出西施。
  • Mr.Smith was a lover of poetry.史密斯先生是一名诗歌爱好者。
21 freely LiexN     
  • She was unable to keep back her tears,and wept freely.她抑制不住泪水,痛痛快快地哭了起来。
  • A liquid flows freely and has no fixed shape.液体能自由流动,无固定形态。
22 deeply Ru7zyZ     
  • I do feel deeply the strength of the collective.我确实深深地感到了集体的力量。
  • We're deeply honoured that you should agree to join us.您能同意加入我们,我们感到很荣幸。
23 ashamed jNeyS     
  • He is ashamed to show his face at the club.他不好意思在俱乐部露脸。
  • You ought to be ashamed of your foolish behaviour.你应当为自己的愚蠢行为而感到羞耻。
24 fade Rlnxa     
  • Will the colour in this material fade?这种料子褪色吗?
  • Flowers of true friendship never fade.友谊之花永不凋谢。
25 unlock Ijlwx     
  • The border police required the traveler to unlock his luggage.边防警察要求旅客打开行李。
  • We heard somebody unlock the door.我们听见有人开门锁。
26 miserable g18yk     
  • It was miserable of you to make fun of him.你取笑他,这是可耻的。
  • Her past life was miserable.她过去的生活很苦。
TAG标签: mind dream Freud