On the Translation and Comparison of
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The color is a kind of human being's aesthesia in the objective world (Jianghong, 1999). Whatever possesses in the nature or in social life, various colors exist. The so-called " beautiful world " or " colorful life " proves that people's actual life is closely related to color in which people live.

Scientific research indicates that seven million kinds of colors can be found in the world. However, color expressions are only limited to several hundreds in classification. The number of words for expressing color in languages of various nationalities differs and its classification varies as well. [1]

English and Chinese Expressions on Colors can be categorized into three kinds: Firstly, the major colors in the natural world, such as redbluegreenwhitepurplegraybrownblack and so on; Secondly1, color expressions on objects, which are commonly associated with goldsilverorange and blue; Thirdly, compound color expressions which can be found that are related to lead-grayfish-belly-graywaxy-yelloworange-red and other colors ,too.[2] 

1  Translation of English and Chinese Expressions on Colors

Many color vocabularies are expressed both in English and Chinese. However, the color expressions in English and Chinese have great differences. Therefore, the expressions on colors between the two languages can't be briefly2 and equivalently translated. Instead, it needs to be translated specifically according to certain conditions along with a flexible way. As a result, it is urgent for us to avoid making wrong translation word by word. The translation methods of different English and Chinese color expressions are as follows:

1.1  Literal Translation

Literal translation means that translators should try their best to keep the language style of the original work. Meanwhile it requires the target language to be smooth and easy to understand.

Take the major colors as an example, the meanings of them in two languages are quite similar in the natural world. Red, yellow, blue, green, black, white, purple, dust and brown can be translated in literal translation. For instance, the blue sky is the same as it is arranged in Chinese language. Another example is that he wears a black coat. This English sentence is exactly arranged in the order of Chinese-expression.

While translating the symbol meanings of the major color expressions, if in a certain linguistic3 context, a certain color word having the same symbolic4 meaning in two languages, can be translated in literal translation. Cite an example: African nations going red. This English sentence can be arranged in the word formation in Chinese in different order. Red power. This English phrase is expressed exactly in the same order of Chinese one.

On the other hand, we can take equivalent method of literal translation to translate color expressions on objects both in English and Chinese languages. For example: The phrases " Grass green " and the following English sentence are both expressed in the similar situation in its counterpart language of Chinese: But one afternoon I was walking across the yard and stopped to pick up an acorn5—one acorn, nut brown, glossy6, cool to touch; …

1.2  Free Translation

Free translation means that the translator focuses on the most significant part of the text while leaving out the insignificant7 part for flexibility8. In a word, free translation does not pay attention to the style of the original text, including the structure of the sentence, the use of words, metaphor9 and other tropes.

In view of color phrase translation, the expression form of some color sentences differs greatly. And the metaphor used in original language does not accord with the usage of original word. Take " look at the world through rose-colored glasses " from the sentence " When Anna graduated from high school, she looked at the world through rose-colored glasses. " for example, the phrase " Look at the world through rose-colored glasses " means " see the problems too optimistically ", literal translation will be: " …to have on the rose-colored glasses", readers do not understand what it means. If this sentence is translated in literal translation, readers will be lost and unable to grasp the key points or main ideas. Therefore, we must adopt free translation and show readers clearly the real meaning for the expression. [3]

On the other hand, some color words have the amplifying10 meaning. For this purpose, we can totally neglect the color expressions of the original text, and translate them with proper words according to the meaning of the original text. For instance: "a green hand" and "pink slip" are correctly translated.[4]

In contrast, in the process of translating the symbol meaning of major color expressions, if under a certain linguistic context with symbolic meaning of a certain color bearing different implications in two languages, we need to take the approach of free translation. " Her visit came out of the blue. " " The store is running in the blue. "And "He is so black as he is painted. " These three sentences are the typical samples.

As to color expressions on objects usually used in one kind of language rather than in another kind of language, we cannot find another color expressions on objects to express them in target language. At this time, we’d better take free translation or express them by major color expressions. " Cherry lips " just can be translated by major color expressions. " Small features, very fair " from " …small features, very fair; flaxen ringlets, or rather golden, hanging loosely on her delicate neck… " All these examples need to be translated in free translation.

1.3  Dynamic Equivalence Translation

Dynamic equivalence translation means that it is to make every effort to reach flexibility and equivalence, which enables foreign readers to get roughly the same feeling as original text readers. In order to keep the form of original work, every effort should be made to maintain the original content, style, emotion and artistic12 conception including the literal and implying meaning. Target language is smooth and equivalent in meaning and style. While differing greatly in bilingual contexts, translators can make great changes in using words and structures.

When translator translates Chinese basic color " darkwhitered and yellow " to describe the weather, face and complexion13 of people, it is necessary to use different basic color expressions in different languages according to the concretely descriptive object and instance. Take the Chinese word " black " for example, it is expressed by different aspects in English:

" Dark " from " It's getting dark. " and " brown " from " His face is brown." Both can be translated into " black " .

Take another example of the Chinese word " white ":

In " He is pale with fear. " and " His face turned green at the sight. ", we can feel that " his face becomes white because of fear " in different English expressions.

These words below can be translated into Chinese word for " yellow ":

" He has a yellow face. " and " golden hair " both refer to Chinese expressions for " yellow ".

1.4  Borrowed Translation

A certain object may represent a certain color in one language, but there is not a same case in another language. So we have to seek the matching object in target language. For instance:

" Opal-colored " and " raven14 hair " need to be translated in borrowed translation.

1.5  Amplified15 Translation

While translating the major color expressions, though some words can describe colors, we can't translate them directly. Instead, it should be translated according to the culture background of the language, For instance: white Christmas in English will be translated into Chinese for expressing the color of the festival in its atmosphere.

1.6  Selection and Translation According to the Match

In Chinese, there are several major color expressions. One of the words can point several kinds of colors. While translating this kind of words into English, the translators should confirm its concrete meaning in colors according to matching as priority, and then translate it into the corresponding English expressions in color. For instance:

   The " green " from " green vegetables " and " green pines " can be translated into two kinds of different colors.

1.7  According to Sanctified Usage, Translate one Kind of Color Into Another Kind

   In English and Chinese cultures, sometimes people have different perception to the same object. Therefore they have different understandings of the same color in its meaning. And then it causes that different phrases reveal the same kind of color, such as  " pink eyes " and " black and blue ".

   In addition, some nouns should de added to the color expressions while translating into Chinese, for instance:

   When we translate " cucumber " and " soybean ", we should use yellow as well.

2  Comparison of English and Chinese Expressions on Colors

2.1  On the Relation Between Yellow and Social Cultural Ideology16 to Compare the English Color Expressions With Chinese

   The nature is varicolored. The color will produce specific meaning in the minds of people, and cause specific association and inspire the special response; this is social intension of the color. In this way, the color is no longer an objective material, but turn into the abstract symbolic color, immerge in dyeing body of culture. [5] There are many color expressions, which reflect different culture psychologies17 and emotional colorings both in Chinese and English. Especially in Chinese, there are rich and colorful color words since ancient times. There are the same in English. Many color expressions reflect the Western customs as well.  According to comparison between the Chinese color expressions and the English, we talk about the relations between the color " yellow " and its ideology of social culture.

   The yellow is the representative color of Chinese nation from ancient times, and also one of the colors, which Chinese nationality advocates. In ancient times, the yellow symbolized18 such cultural meaning as the sacredness, imperial power, honor, loftiness, solemnity, land, territory, etc. Zhu Xi, a great thinker, said in Song Dynasty: " Countenance19 of the central soil. " So the yellow symbolizes20 central imperial power and the state, at the same time it signifies the land of everything grows. Besides, one of the first ancestors in Chinese nationally-- Xuanyuan emperor had " the lucky of soil morality ". It was said that he often wore the yellow crown, so the yellow became the emperor's favorite color later. Chinese officials wore more yellow robes in ancient times, thus forbade common people to wear the yellow clothes. " Acclaimed21 emperor " means that " coup22 succeeds, capture regime ".

   The Yellow River Basin that life multiplies from ancient times is the birthplace of the Han nationality’s culture in China. So we call the Yellow River the cradle of Chinese nation, a cradle that fosters Chinese culture. In the Chinese drama facial art, the yellow represents the bold or capable personality, such as the complexion of Huanggai, Dianwei etc. in the Three Kingdoms for instance.

   The derogatory sense of Chinese yellow color is from outside. Originally yellow has no meaning of corruption23 and degeneration. After introduced to China, the yellow has the meaning such as being reactionary24, pornographic, obscene and etc. Therefore it has produced a set of words including derogatory sense for the color itself. In recent years, the government calls and removes the public hazards in the society to " eradicate25 pornography ", then appears one batch26 of new words made up by " yellow " again, for instance: Huang Yuan, yellow goods, pornographic den11 and yellow tide. But sometimes " yellow " is used for pointing the meaning of " failure ", too. If the love between men and women is over, they can say the affair is " yellow ". If one thing is unable to succeed, we can say: This is " yellow ".

Now let us have a look at the yellow cultural intension in English. Yellow’s derogatory sense color stems from U.S.A. Since the 18th century, U.S.A. mostly has used yellow colored paper to print and publish some books and periodicals with low taste, so we called the pornographic books and periodicals (yellow press). In American English, yellow journalism28 means yellow style of running a newspaper to attract readers with characters or sensational29 report of low taste. Furthermore, besides basic meaning, yellow word has the meaning of " jealous ", " suspect ", " timid ", and " coward ". If a person is yellow-belly, that is to say " the coward ".

    If one had been " yellow ", he or she must have lost the courage (A person who is " yellow " has no courage). Yellow is also often used for the suggestion and warning. Yellow alert refers to the preparing warning of air raids. Among the football match, yellow card refers to the warning of your foul30. In the past, if passengers suffered from the yellow fever in oceangoing steamship31, a kind of yellow signal flag (yellow jack) would rise soon.

2.2  From the metaphor meaning of the English and Chinese color expressions in accordance with their cultures in the two languages. 

In the course of university English teaching in the past seven years, many people keep in touch with a large number of English teaching materials, and they can come across the colors showing metaphor meaning frequently. What does " green with envy " mean in English? Does jealousy32 or envy make eyes become blue and green? He was in a blue mood. How shall we explain it? Is his mood happy or sad?

  Quite obviously, the color expressions mentioned above have not already been objective, but has been endowed with the culture atmosphere in depth. According to the dictionary, the word " green " means " (face) become green "; and " green with envy " which belongs to the regular phrase match means " envying very much ". While being used to reflect the mood, the words of blue and mood in the second example show " melancholy33 ". This sentence should be translated into " His mood is very low ".

In fact, these kinds of color expressions that react to psychology34 of people or words of emotional color are too numerous to be mentioned in Chinese. According to the associated meaning and metaphor, we compare English bilingual culture with Chinese.

  According to Chinese and English bilingual cultures, the " white " association in people’s mind is rather similar: holy, pure, clean, and honest. For example, there are " innocent ", " pure white such as the jade35 ", " hospital nurse ", " telling the truth and will receive a lighter36 sentence ", etc. that expression in Chinese. " A white soul " expresses " pure soul " in English. And what does " a white lie " mean?  It means " no hostile lie ", namely because of courtesy to compile pieces of excuse to tell lies but no intention of cheating others. Between Chinese and English bilingual cultures, " white " also has the meaning of " pale, white ". For example, “(as) white as a sheet” means " the face is pale " because of being frightened or shocked; (as) white as snow mean " white, extremely white ".

" White " is used to be a taboo37 word basically in Chinese traditional culture. And it is a symbol of death and ill omen27. When a relative dies, the family members wear the white clothing in order to show grief. In the feudal38 society, the white is the common people's favorite color. From Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, " white clothing " means ordinary people, " commoner " means the person who has no scholarly honor of official rank. [6]
  Most westerners feel obscure about the " white " word in Chinese " weddings and funerals ". You had better not translate two color of " red ", " white " at all, only to say " wedding and funerals " (happy event and bereavement39; or the wedding and funeral). Because when Westerners hold the wedding, a bride always wears white dress. Linking the white to bereavements will cause scunner; if funerals are called as happy occasions, Westerners will feel startled, though this kind of statement reflects Chinese attitude to the death.
  But in the course of translation from Chinese to English, some Chinese words with " white "don’t have their corresponding expressions in English, such as " Chinese cabbage ", " polar bear ", "termite40". Besides in some occasions, " white " has nothing to do with color.  For example, using " for nothing " and " all in vain " to express " in vain ". In addition, " fool " should be translated into " idiot ", " vernacular41 " is the acceptable translation. In a word, we can see that the " white " does not always mean the white color.

2.3  On the differences according to people's feel, expression and association meaning that red produce.

Color is a kind of visual effect. Because the mankind has the same physiological42 mechanism43 and vision nerve, the color words are no different in essence, theoretically. However, because of various language culture, historical background, religious belief, mode of thinking, aesthetic44 temperament45 and interest, etc. in different nationality, people's impression of color and expression are different, and the associative meaning produced by the color has nothing in common with each other. Now take an example of " red ":
  Chinese nation advocates the red, shows favoritism to the red, the red is for joyous46 as a main color. During the celebration, the Chinese highly hang the bright red lantern and stick the red couplets. At the victory meeting, the merit minister wears the red flower, wrap around the red ribbon. And his name is on the honor board. In traditional wedding, the Chinese stick the red " happiness " word, and bride wear red robe. In addition, the red glitters here and there in the bridal chamber47. As for words and expressions, there are " favorite follower48, covert49 payment, dividend50, good luck, glowing with health ". But if we translate " favorite follower " into a red man or a red person, English readers will be baffled, just because there are some differences in the usage of the color words between English nationality and Chinese nationality. Here red no longer means the red color. We should precisely51 translate it into " a favorite with somebody in power " according to Chinese meaning. As similar as follows: Honor roll, extra dividend, good luck, one's face glowing with health, etc. In a lot of English countries, the red is the color of fire and blood; it means to dedicate oneself to the faith and universal fraternity. For instance: in liturgy52 wearing the red is to express the holy love; a church is decorated with the red for holy god’s come or cherishing the memory of martyrs53. The derogatory sense of red is quite strong in western culture, which is mostly used to express " danger, anger, urgency ". For instance: Get into the red (present the deficit54), see red (angry, get angry), red-blooded (crude and rash, intrepid), red-hand (the criminal caught in the act, bleeding), red light (show the danger). Businessmen are unwilling55 to see red word, because deficit and in debt are expressed with red, such as red ink (deficit), He is red. (He is debt-ridden). There are a lot of idioms including red in English to reflect the specific historical and geographical56 background. For example, redneck originally points " [pedagogue] (southern peasants of U.S.A.): Countryside man ", now this word is amplified for " reactionary "; its adjective form is redneck. Red Nose Day refers to a day on which an appeal is made for donations for research into sudden infant death syndrome57, marked by the distribution of plastic red noses to donors58, namely, "the day of soliciting60 contributions for the sudden infant death syndrome". The persons who solicit59 contributions will distribute the red plastic nose that day, because the specific incident is their custom. If we translate it into " red nose ", not only do we lose the real reflection to the incident, but also make Chinese readers misunderstand it into " acne roscoe ".
  " Tea " in Chinese is translated into “cha”, but " red tea " in Chinese is black tea in English. At this time, we should translate " red " into black but not red. Studying carefully its reason, in Chinese we call it " red " according to the tea color, in English we call it " black " according to the color of the tea leaves. In the same way, " blue pepper steak " in " john claims his blue pepper steak takers only 45 seconds to prepare " refers that the pepper ox is cooked extremely softly. In Chinese when the meat is undercooked, commonly it is expressed by the words " with the blood ", not by " blue ". Besides, there are many other examples in English, such as " She ordered in to be served blue ". All of these differences are caused by English and Chinese people’s different points of view to observe things.














Besides the above-mentioned differences, English and Chinese color expressions differ in many other aspects. For example, in the aesthetic standard, Chinese women hope they own fair and delicate skin. But in the eyes of Western women, being dark in complete red is considered to be healthy while bearing fair color is representing poverty and diseases. [7]

As international exchanges happen frequently and constantly, we should grasp and research different color expressions and scientific translation methods between English and Chinese, which will play a positive role in improving our translation skills, promoting international mutual61 understanding and winning better cooperation.







I would like to express my deep gratitude62 to all those who helped me during the writing of this thesis. A special acknowledgement should first be shown to Professor Liu, who has been my constant consultant63 in my writing this essay, and this thesis would not have been possible without his help. If there are any errors, they are not his, but all mine.  

In addition, I would like to give my thanks to my family, my classmates and my friends, for their kind help and valuable advice to my writing.

Finally, I wish to extend my thanks to the library assistants who supplied me with reference materials of great value.





1  包惠南.文化语境与语言翻译.[M].北京:中国对外翻译出版公司,2001

2  陈宏薇.新实用汉译英教程.[M].湖北:湖北教育出版社,1996.

3  范仲英.实用英语翻译.[M].北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1994171

4  http://www.psyczx.com/update/10/31/c.htm

5  简易民.汉语和英语颜色词的文化分析.[J].大理学院学报,20037

6  孙雪波.英汉语颜色词的使用与翻译.[J].宁波广播电视大学学报,第2期.20046

7  张慧军.英汉文化习俗差异与翻译.[J].陕西教育学院学报,20005.


1 secondly cjazXx     
  • Secondly,use your own head and present your point of view.第二,动脑筋提出自己的见解。
  • Secondly it is necessary to define the applied load.其次,需要确定所作用的载荷。
2 briefly 9Styo     
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
3 linguistic k0zxn     
  • She is pursuing her linguistic researches.她在从事语言学的研究。
  • The ability to write is a supreme test of linguistic competence.写作能力是对语言能力的最高形式的测试。
4 symbolic ErgwS     
  • It is symbolic of the fighting spirit of modern womanhood.它象征着现代妇女的战斗精神。
  • The Christian ceremony of baptism is a symbolic act.基督教的洗礼仪式是一种象征性的做法。
5 acorn JoJye     
  • The oak is implicit in the acorn.橡树孕育于橡子之中。
  • The tree grew from a small acorn.橡树从一粒小橡子生长而来。
6 glossy nfvxx     
  • I like these glossy spots.我喜欢这些闪闪发光的花点。
  • She had glossy black hair.她长着乌黑发亮的头发。
7 insignificant k6Mx1     
  • In winter the effect was found to be insignificant.在冬季,这种作用是不明显的。
  • This problem was insignificant compared to others she faced.这一问题与她面临的其他问题比较起来算不得什么。
8 flexibility vjPxb     
  • Her great strength lies in her flexibility.她的优势在于她灵活变通。
  • The flexibility of a man's muscles will lessen as he becomes old.人老了肌肉的柔韧性将降低。
9 metaphor o78zD     
  • Using metaphor,we say that computers have senses and a memory.打个比方,我们可以说计算机有感觉和记忆力。
  • In poetry the rose is often a metaphor for love.玫瑰在诗中通常作为爱的象征。
10 amplifying 29631b8f34f8b755bf579c2bef5e2907     
放大,扩大( amplify的现在分词 ); 增强; 详述
  • Often they use borrowed funds, amplifying their gains and losses. 他们通常会用借贷的资金交易,从而放大收益或损失。
  • An amplifying type (or analog) device, as opposed to digital device. 放大器类(或模拟)器件,相对于数字器件而言的。
11 den 5w9xk     
  • There is a big fox den on the back hill.后山有一个很大的狐狸窝。
  • The only way to catch tiger cubs is to go into tiger's den.不入虎穴焉得虎子。
12 artistic IeWyG     
  • The picture on this screen is a good artistic work.这屏风上的画是件很好的艺术品。
  • These artistic handicrafts are very popular with foreign friends.外国朋友很喜欢这些美术工艺品。
13 complexion IOsz4     
  • Red does not suit with her complexion.红色与她的肤色不协调。
  • Her resignation puts a different complexion on things.她一辞职局面就全变了。
14 raven jAUz8     
  • We know the raven will never leave the man's room.我们知道了乌鸦再也不会离开那个男人的房间。
  • Her charming face was framed with raven hair.她迷人的脸上垂落着乌亮的黑发。
15 amplified d305c65f3ed83c07379c830f9ade119d     
放大,扩大( amplify的过去式和过去分词 ); 增强; 详述
  • He amplified on his remarks with drawings and figures. 他用图表详细地解释了他的话。
  • He amplified the whole course of the incident. 他详述了事件的全过程。
16 ideology Scfzg     
  • The ideology has great influence in the world.这种思想体系在世界上有很大的影响。
  • The ideal is to strike a medium between ideology and inspiration.我的理想是在意识思想和灵感鼓动之间找到一个折衷。
17 psychologies 58c20f54c3aa5d6d340be394acd2f01b     
n.心理学( psychology的名词复数 );心理特点;心理影响
  • So the two branch of social psychologies will exist and develop eternally. 两种取向的社会心理学将永远存在和发展下去。 来自互联网
  • What interests me most are psychologies, backgrounds and spotting winners. 最让我感兴趣的是心理特点、背景经历以及如何预判出佼佼者。 来自互联网
18 symbolized 789161b92774c43aefa7cbb79126c6c6     
v.象征,作为…的象征( symbolize的过去式和过去分词 )
  • For Tigress, Joy symbolized the best a woman could expect from life. 在她看,小福子就足代表女人所应有的享受。 来自汉英文学 - 骆驼祥子
  • A car symbolized distinction and achievement, and he was proud. 汽车象征着荣誉和成功,所以他很自豪。 来自辞典例句
19 countenance iztxc     
  • At the sight of this photograph he changed his countenance.他一看见这张照片脸色就变了。
  • I made a fierce countenance as if I would eat him alive.我脸色恶狠狠地,仿佛要把他活生生地吞下去。
20 symbolizes 8a0610984df5bcb77bc12be9119bcd7d     
v.象征,作为…的象征( symbolize的第三人称单数 )
  • The use of light and dark symbolizes good and evil. 用光明与黑暗来象征善与恶。
  • She likes olive because It'symbolizes peace. 她喜欢橄榄色因为它象征着和平。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 acclaimed 90ebf966469bbbcc8cacff5bee4678fe     
  • They acclaimed him as the best writer of the year. 他们称赞他为当年的最佳作者。
  • Confuscius is acclaimed as a great thinker. 孔子被赞誉为伟大的思想家。
22 coup co5z4     
  • The monarch was ousted by a military coup.那君主被军事政变者废黜了。
  • That government was overthrown in a military coup three years ago.那个政府在3年前的军事政变中被推翻。
23 corruption TzCxn     
  • The people asked the government to hit out against corruption and theft.人民要求政府严惩贪污盗窃。
  • The old man reviled against corruption.那老人痛斥了贪污舞弊。
24 reactionary 4TWxJ     
  • They forced thousands of peasants into their reactionary armies.他们迫使成千上万的农民参加他们的反动军队。
  • The reactionary ruling clique was torn by internal strife.反动统治集团内部勾心斗角,四分五裂。
25 eradicate Ui1zn     
  • These insects are very difficult to eradicate.这些昆虫很难根除。
  • They are already battling to eradicate illnesses such as malaria and tetanus.他们已经在努力消灭疟疾、破伤风等疾病。
26 batch HQgyz     
  • The first batch of cakes was burnt.第一炉蛋糕烤焦了。
  • I have a batch of letters to answer.我有一批信要回复。
27 omen N5jzY     
  • The superstitious regard it as a bad omen.迷信的人认为那是一种恶兆。
  • Could this at last be a good omen for peace?这是否终于可以视作和平的吉兆了?
28 journalism kpZzu8     
  • He's a teacher but he does some journalism on the side.他是教师,可还兼职做一些新闻工作。
  • He had an aptitude for journalism.他有从事新闻工作的才能。
29 sensational Szrwi     
  • Papers of this kind are full of sensational news reports.这类报纸满是耸人听闻的新闻报道。
  • Their performance was sensational.他们的演出妙极了。
30 foul Sfnzy     
  • Take off those foul clothes and let me wash them.脱下那些脏衣服让我洗一洗。
  • What a foul day it is!多么恶劣的天气!
31 steamship 1h9zcA     
  • The return may be made on the same steamship.可乘同一艘汽船当天回来。
  • It was so foggy that the steamship almost ran down a small boat leaving the port.雾很大,汽艇差点把一只正在离港的小船撞沉。
32 jealousy WaRz6     
  • Some women have a disposition to jealousy.有些女人生性爱妒忌。
  • I can't support your jealousy any longer.我再也无法忍受你的嫉妒了。
33 melancholy t7rz8     
  • All at once he fell into a state of profound melancholy.他立即陷入无尽的忧思之中。
  • He felt melancholy after he failed the exam.这次考试没通过,他感到很郁闷。
34 psychology U0Wze     
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
35 jade i3Pxo     
  • The statue was carved out of jade.这座塑像是玉雕的。
  • He presented us with a couple of jade lions.他送给我们一对玉狮子。
36 lighter 5pPzPR     
  • The portrait was touched up so as to make it lighter.这张画经过润色,色调明朗了一些。
  • The lighter works off the car battery.引燃器利用汽车蓄电池打火。
37 taboo aqBwg     
  • The rude words are taboo in ordinary conversation.这些粗野的字眼在日常谈话中是禁忌的。
  • Is there a taboo against sex before marriage in your society?在你们的社会里,婚前的性行为犯禁吗?
38 feudal cg1zq     
  • Feudal rulers ruled over the country several thousand years.封建统治者统治这个国家几千年。
  • The feudal system lasted for two thousand years in China.封建制度在中国延续了两千年之久。
39 bereavement BQSyE     
  • the pain of an emotional crisis such as divorce or bereavement 诸如离婚或痛失亲人等情感危机的痛苦
  • I sympathize with you in your bereavement. 我对你痛失亲人表示同情。 来自《简明英汉词典》
40 termite npTwE     
  • The termite control was also probed into further in this text.本文还进一步探讨了白蚁的防治方法。
  • Termite often destroys wood.白蚁经常破坏树木。
41 vernacular ULozm     
  • The house is built in a vernacular style.这房子按当地的风格建筑。
  • The traditional Chinese vernacular architecture is an epitome of Chinese traditional culture.中国传统民居建筑可谓中国传统文化的缩影。
42 physiological aAvyK     
  • He bought a physiological book.他买了一本生理学方面的书。
  • Every individual has a physiological requirement for each nutrient.每个人对每种营养成分都有一种生理上的需要。
43 mechanism zCWxr     
  • The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body.骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
  • The mechanism of the machine is very complicated.这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
44 aesthetic px8zm     
  • My aesthetic standards are quite different from his.我的审美标准与他的大不相同。
  • The professor advanced a new aesthetic theory.那位教授提出了新的美学理论。
45 temperament 7INzf     
  • The analysis of what kind of temperament you possess is vital.分析一下你有什么样的气质是十分重要的。
  • Success often depends on temperament.成功常常取决于一个人的性格。
46 joyous d3sxB     
  • The lively dance heightened the joyous atmosphere of the scene.轻快的舞蹈给这场戏渲染了欢乐气氛。
  • They conveyed the joyous news to us soon.他们把这一佳音很快地传递给我们。
47 chamber wnky9     
  • For many,the dentist's surgery remains a torture chamber.对许多人来说,牙医的治疗室一直是间受刑室。
  • The chamber was ablaze with light.会议厅里灯火辉煌。
48 follower gjXxP     
  • He is a faithful follower of his home football team.他是他家乡足球队的忠实拥护者。
  • Alexander is a pious follower of the faith.亚历山大是个虔诚的信徒。
49 covert voxz0     
  • We should learn to fight with enemy in an overt and covert way.我们应学会同敌人做公开和隐蔽的斗争。
  • The army carried out covert surveillance of the building for several months.军队对这座建筑物进行了数月的秘密监视。
50 dividend Fk7zv     
  • The company was forced to pass its dividend.该公司被迫到期不分红。
  • The first quarter dividend has been increased by nearly 4 per cent.第一季度的股息增长了近 4%。
51 precisely zlWzUb     
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
52 liturgy f8Fzp     
  • A clergyman read the liturgy from the prayer-book.一名牧师照着祈祷书念祷文。
  • The mass is the church a kind of liturgy.弥撒是教会的一种礼拜仪式。
53 martyrs d8bbee63cb93081c5677dc671dc968fc     
n.martyr的复数形式;烈士( martyr的名词复数 );殉道者;殉教者;乞怜者(向人诉苦以博取同情)
  • the early Christian martyrs 早期基督教殉道者
  • They paid their respects to the revolutionary martyrs. 他们向革命烈士致哀。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
54 deficit tmAzu     
  • The directors have reported a deficit of 2.5 million dollars.董事们报告赤字为250万美元。
  • We have a great deficit this year.我们今年有很大亏损。
55 unwilling CjpwB     
  • The natives were unwilling to be bent by colonial power.土著居民不愿受殖民势力的摆布。
  • His tightfisted employer was unwilling to give him a raise.他那吝啬的雇主不肯给他加薪。
56 geographical Cgjxb     
  • The current survey will have a wider geographical spread.当前的调查将在更广泛的地域范围內进行。
  • These birds have a wide geographical distribution.这些鸟的地理分布很广。
57 syndrome uqBwu     
  • The Institute says that an unidentified virus is to blame for the syndrome. 该研究所表示,引起这种综合症的是一种尚未确认的病毒。
  • Results indicated that 11 fetuses had Down syndrome. 结果表明有11个胎儿患有唐氏综合征。
58 donors 89b49c2bd44d6d6906d17dca7315044b     
n.捐赠者( donor的名词复数 );献血者;捐血者;器官捐献者
  • Please email us to be removed from our active list of blood donors. 假如你想把自己的名字从献血联系人名单中删去,请给我们发电子邮件。
  • About half this amount comes from individual donors and bequests. 这笔钱大约有一半来自个人捐赠及遗赠。 来自《简明英汉词典》
59 solicit AFrzc     
  • Beggars are not allowed to solicit in public places.乞丐不得在公共场所乞讨。
  • We should often solicit opinions from the masses.我们应该经常征求群众意见。
60 soliciting ca5499d5ad6a3567de18f81c7dc8c931     
v.恳求( solicit的现在分词 );(指娼妇)拉客;索求;征求
  • A prostitute was soliciting on the street. 一名妓女正在街上拉客。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • China Daily is soliciting subscriptions. 《中国日报》正在征求订户。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
61 mutual eFOxC     
  • We must pull together for mutual interest.我们必须为相互的利益而通力合作。
  • Mutual interests tied us together.相互的利害关系把我们联系在一起。
62 gratitude p6wyS     
  • I have expressed the depth of my gratitude to him.我向他表示了深切的谢意。
  • She could not help her tears of gratitude rolling down her face.她感激的泪珠禁不住沿着面颊流了下来。
63 consultant 2v0zp3     
  • He is a consultant on law affairs to the mayor.他是市长的一个法律顾问。
  • Originally,Gar had agreed to come up as a consultant.原来,加尔只答应来充当我们的顾问。