The role of Enterprise Resource Planning systems in organiza
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Confronting the arrival of the information age, standing1 on furious tides of a high speed development, we seize the information technology as the most important arms to gain us a leading position in the information war. Every enterprise is the economical organization which pursues for interests and benefits normally. Especially, once one organization owns a big structure, its information management would become necessary for the need of development in the information era. In fact, the outcome of one enterprise information management has already been regarded as the key factor to adjust whether or not the undertaking2 could grow faster and more efficiently3 than ever. Regarded as the advanced methodology which is complied with a modern management philosophy in the comparative environment, ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) is considered as the most powerful weapon which can help an enterprise to accomplish the revolution of its development.

Another of those buzzwords that everyone talks of but no one seems to know much about. ERP        (Enterprise Resource Planning) is not just about planning your resources more about how the various divisions in your Enterprise function. An ERP solution aims to provide single software which will integrate all the divisions in your organization planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing4, finance, HR and yet fulfill5 each division information and planning needs.
                                                                   (Appssolutions, 2005)

The research mainly answers questions on what ERP is, why it can be important in the sociality nowadays, what kind of position it takes in the enterprise; moreover, which role ERP plays?

Key words: MRPII、ERP、Case Study


What is ERP?

There are various explanations from different people on ERP. Regardless the traditional angle of the functional6 management, it would reach a common agreement on the perspective of management characters of the Knowledge Economy Era. ERP is the initials of Enterprise Resource Planning. Confronting with the supply chain, It is the tool of management which can utilize7 information technologies in order to apply for features of the modern information economy era—Clients, Competition and Change; moreover, it can integrate all resources within and outside enterprises. ERP has remarkable8 features of this information age and re-defines the business processes of the undertaking. In the economic times it uses the new concept of Process to take the place of the bureaucracy management model in the old economic era, in order that it creates the management idea which put customers and staff on the core position.

Thanks for the information technologies; the big amount of enterprises’ data can be shared. Using information to replace the stock, it decreases warehouse9’s cost and risk; moreover, by means of computer, these basic data could be searched and analyzed11 so as to improve the speed and accuracy of decisions. It embodies12 the idea that can predict and plan in advance, control during the process, and calculate & analyze10 afterwards. In the knowledge economy times, ERP system emphasizes its Open Resources characters mostly. Therefore, it could increase the employment effectiveness of Human Resources and Time Resources, solve the problem of information overflow13, and improve the precision of the decision-making.

An ERP system basic includes:
• Supply chain management
• Customer relations management
• Supplier relate the management
• Product production cycle management
• Commercial intelligence
• Financial control
• Human resources management
• Profession solution
• Motion commerce
• And so on.  ( Scott Hamilton,2003,p97)                                                               

ERP has been created from the concept developed by Gartner Group which described manufacture business system and material requirement planning (MRP II) ( San Jin,2005 ). It will include client/sever structure, using graphic14 user interface15 and applying for opening system design. Besides the standard function set up already, it covers other characters: such as quality, process operation management, and reports adjustment, etc.. Especially, the basic technology adopted by ERP provides users independence both in software and hardware which could be upgraded more easily than ever (Stedman, C. 2005,p54 p55). The key factor of ERP is that it could tailor to all customers’ requirements and boast for its easy usage. 
There are four standard functions of ERP carried by Gartner Group: ( Khalid Sheikh, 2003,p80 )
1. The Strong Integration16 function which exceeds to the range of MRP II.
It contains the quality control, the laboratory management, the process management, the formulation management, the product data management, the maintenance management, the control report and the stock management.
2. Supporting Hybrid17 Manufacture Environment & Configuration
It includes either discrete18 or continuous process making environment, ability to combine service procedures according to the objected-oriented service models and to apply them internationally (Asokan Anandarajan, Cadambi A Srinivasan, Murugan Anandarajan, 2004,p143).
3. Supporting motivated monitoring ability and improving business performance
It covers the adaptation of the controlling and engineering methods, simulation function, decision-making support and graphic ability of production and analysis.
4. Supporting opening C/S computing19 environment
It embraces c/s architecture, Graphic User Interface (GUI), Computer-Aided Design Engineering (CASE); object-oriented techniques; SQL querying20 to relational database; internal integration engineering system, business system, electronic data interchange (EDI). ( Wu Hong,2002,p23-33 )


Hence, functions and techniques of ERP system have greatly surpassed the traditional MRPII. It is the enterprise resource planning which is customer-oriented, timing21 based, opening to the whole supply chain.
Thoughts of ERP system management

The core of ERP system management thoughts is to realize its effective supervision22 of the entire supply chain. Three parts followed are contributed to this idea:

1. Managing the total supply chain resources.  ( Carol A.Ptak, Eli Schragenheim, 2004,p212 )

It would compete ineffectually within the market if one undertaking relies on its own resources alone. They should put all participants, such as supplier, manufactories, distribution network and clients, into a close-linked supply chain in the business process. This enables to arrange efficiently actives of produce, supply and sale; and to meet the requirements of enterprise, ability to utilize all marketing resources of the whole society in order to produce and manage fast and effectively. Moreover, it will help increasing the efficiency, achieving the leading position on the market. Applying ERP system into the management of the entire enterprise’s supply chain is the call from the marketing competition in the knowledge economy era.

2. Lean Production, Synchronous23 Engineering and Agile24 Manufacturing

ERP system supports to the management of hybrid manufacture. It is presented as the following two parts:

 The Lean Production (LP).  ( Ni Ming,2005 )
It is the enterprise business strategy structure introduced by Massachusetts Institute Technology (MIT). Specifically, it indicates that an enterprise brings clients, sales representatives, suppliers and other collaborative units into production structure. Relationships among the undertaking and its sales representatives, clients and suppliers have not the simple link of Business Transactions but the co-operational partners shared with common interests. Then, this co-operational relationship set up one enterprise supply chain. Therefore, all of these are contributed to the center of the Lean Production.

 Agile Manufacturing Thought
Whenever the market starts to change as well as an enterprise encounters specific market segment, the ordinary cooperation partners would not meet the requirements of new products development sometimes. Consequently, the undertaking will organize one supply chain which structures ‘the virtual facture’, constructed by special supplier and sales channels in a short term or once a time. It regards suppliers and co-operational partners all together as one component25 in the enterprise. Then it exercises Synchronous Engineering, and manufactures collaboratively in order to launch the new product into the market within the shortest term, and to hold the product in the stage of high quality, variety and flexibility26 as well. Therefore, what we mentioned above is the core of the Agile Manufacturing Though. #p#

3. Embodying27 the thoughts of pre-planning and controlling during the process
The planning structure in ERP system includes: main production planning, material requirement planning,
capability planning, purchasing planning, selling execution planning, interests planning, finance budget and
human resources planning, etc.. Furthermore, all of planning and value controlling functions have already
integrated into the entire supply chain. ( Avraham Shtub ,1999,p239 )

In conclusion, ERP system enables many advanced management thoughts into computer software systems which can be implemented29 and applied30 in the reality by the development and adoption31 of IT techniques in incredible speed.


The relationship between ERP system and an enterprise & ERP’s role in the enterprise.

ERP is based on the advanced and effective management thoughts and methods. It makes use of new management mode to rebuild old one in one enterprise. The relationship between ERP and the enterprise is supplementary32 to each other.

1.The implementation33 of ERP system is the revolution of an enterprise from all orientations34.

 Conductors of an enterprise should be trainees35 at first. The second comes others who are responsible to carry out and implement28. It should be motivated activities for conductors, the leaders’ level and stuff to regulate the management of the undertaking and other relevant sectors36. Therefore, it helps modern management consciousness being planted into enterprise and becomes one part of company culture finally.

2.The manage mental level should reach the common sense on the ERP implementation
It is important to notice and exercise fundamental works in the matters of one enterprise management. Applications and software suppliers can not offer any kinds of services on this, only can be obtained by hard-workings of the company itself gradually. The implementation of ERP has been regarded as ‘The Engineering of CEO’, which indicates that the company’s decision maker37 plays a special role during the implementation stage. ERP is the system on management which leads and supervises the entire enterprise. It would have not been effective if the CEO has not approved and authorized38 the system.

3.The investment of ERP system is the systematical engineering
Compared with the investment and outcome of capital asserts and equipment, the investment of ERP system could not be redounded39 soon. The ERP system adoption is the systematical engineering process which needs time to realize benefits step by step. What it carries out is the thought of enterprise management which is the red line of the undertaking management. It acts and creates profits in the long turn; moreover, it can achieve benefits and profits form the result of effective management more and more (Chen Jian, 2002 August 7 ).




Furthermore, the investment of ERP system is nothing done once and for ever. Due to the fast developed technologies, the further implementation the system has been done, the tighter resources the company would be aware of. Therefore, the annually40 investment will be required accordingly in order that the system could ensure for operating healthily.
4.The application of ERP system requires supports of inter-disciplinary talents of the company

The personnel not only have a good knowledge of computer science, but also understand enterprises management. It takes times and procedures to train the inter-disciplinary talents. Managers of enterprises should respect them as a big fortune which has been deserved difficultly. These talents would be the forerunners41 who will lead companies to implement ERP system into organizations ( Daniel Edmund O'Leary,2002,p92).

In the age of information, ERP system has played significant role in the enterprise nowadays. Therefore, ERP is generally regarded as:
 The bridge linking all departments and sectors
 The core of the enterprise
 The brain controlling daily operations of the enterprise
 The linkage42 between supply chains of different enterprise.
 The key to succeed in furious competitions with other undertakings43
But I have to say is the ERP is not a management; it can not replace the real management. The ERP can’t resolve the management problem of the business enterprise. The management problem of the business enterprise only is resolved by enterprise governor themselves. The ERP just is a kind of tool for help the enterprise governor manages the enterprise.
Case study
A properly implemented ERP system can result in significant cost savings44 and increased efficiency.
                                                                  (Appssolutions, 2005)
Until now, not only .COM Corporation, but also many traditional corporations realize the important of information. If you want get success in intense competition, you have to have a powerful ERP system as your back support, help you to manage your enterprise information and plan your enterprise resource.

Now let us see how the ERP system helps the YANXIANG Ltd. obtains success. YANXIANG Ltd is one of biggest manufacture group in north of China.

In 2001, The YANXIANG Ltd. production sale begins to take shape, output value hundred million, 17000 kinds of materials are needed, the office distributes in the China mainland and the southeast Asia, but enterprise information always delay, the information delay can cause lots of serious problem, this already become the  biggest  hindrance45. Synthesizes each kind of situation, the YANXIANG Ltd. Management team decide use ERP system to manage the enterprise information and plan the enterprise resource. Although met lots of hindrance in implementation process, but the YANXIANG ERP persists finally and obtains success. The new ERP system helps the YANXIANG Ltd a lot. The output value turns double, and the stock reduces 20%, the operation efficiency obtained the very big enhancement, for example, the time of processing the order reduce from 6 hours to 1 hour. As a result of data sharing and planning, the ERP system makes sure the production can accord to the order strictly46 from stock to material plan, manufacture project, the warehouse, has avoided lots of artificial mistake.

Following four points showed the ERP success in the YANXIANG Ltd.
1. System movement integration
This is the most basic performance that ERP apply successfully. The ERP system is an entire system and controls all different parts of the enterprise, especially on the supply chain management. So it is not just only in the internal of the enterprise, but also in the whole supply chain. YANXIANG management team staff and copartner they all give the biggest support in the ERP implementation. This is a major reason why the implementation time could be so short and so successful.
2. Service flow rationalization
In the ERP implementation, YANXIANG changed lots of unreasonable47 habit. The enterprise competitive ability, the market response ability and customer satisfaction obtains greatest improvement.
3. Achievements monitoring dynamic
The ERP system provides the rich management information for the enterprise. So the enterprise management team needs use these information effectively, makes these information obtain the biggest effect. ERP and the enterprise is one whole group. Each one can not lack.
4. The management improvement will continue
Along with the ERP system and the enterprise rationalization, business management will be able obviously to enhance. And it will help enterprise establish a self-appraisal management mechanism48 make the enterprise may unceasingly carry on and unceasingly improve.
As a word, the ERP system success implementation caused to the YANXIANG Ltd. production manufacture management, the production flows and the inventory49 control, and the market demand all had the remarkable enhancement.  ( SAP 2005 )


Based on statistics of APICS the Association for Operations Management, the application ERP system would obtain the following economic benefits averagely:

(1)To lower the stock 30%~50%
(2)To reduce the possibilities of delivery postponed50 80%
(3)To shorten the time of pre-purchasing 50%
(4)Decrease the possibilities that work has been held up for lack of materials 60%
(5)To lower manufacture costs 12%
(6)To improve management level ( Gary A Langenwalter , 2000, p147 ).
ERP streamlines51 processes within your organization and helps you meet business needs more efficiently and quickly. ERP leads to a revolution in management thoughts and technologies all around the world. It is remarkable that the new management methods and means have been adopted and developed enthusiastically by the incredible speed. The application of ERP infuses a fresh blood and a great passion into thousands of enterprises on the raging tides of the marketing economy, and establishes a sound foundation for the undertakings on which they could stride towards the success finally.



Wu Hong ,(2002) .The ERP principle - design – implements52. Beijing: Publishing House of Electronics Industry.

Appssolutions. Retrieved53 November 3,2005 from

Carol A.Ptak, Eli Schragenheim, (2004). ERP Tools, Techniques and Applications for Integrating the supply chain. The united states of American: CRC press LLC.

San Jin,(2005 July 21). eNET Silicon54 valley power. Retrieved November 15, 2005 from

SAP,(2005 May 5). SAP Customer Success Stories. Retrieved November 8,2005 from

Ni Ming,(2005 April 12). IT168 solution. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from

Scott Hamilton,(2003). Maximizing Your ERP SYSTEM. The united states of American: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Avraham Shtub ,(1999). Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp): The Dynamics55 of Operations Management. The united states of American: The Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Khalid Sheikh, (2003). Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II) with Introduction to ERP, SCM, and CRM. The united states of American: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Daniel Edmund O'Leary,(2002). Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: Systems, Life Cycle, Electronic Commerce, and Risk. Cambridge, united kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Chen Jian,(2002 August 7 ). How can we defined what is success of ERP. Economic daily, Retrieved November 11, 2005 from

Stedman, C. (2005). Gartner Reviews Ross Systems:High Marks for Overall Functionality, Service and Support . Retrieved November 7, 2005 from

Gary A Langenwalter , (2000). Enterprise Resources Planning and Beyond. The united states of American: CRC press LLC.

Asokan Anandarajan, Cadambi A Srinivasan, Murugan Anandarajan, (2004). Business Intelligence Techniques. The united states of American: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York.


1 standing 2hCzgo     
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
2 undertaking Mfkz7S     
  • He gave her an undertaking that he would pay the money back with in a year.他向她做了一年内还钱的保证。
  • He is too timid to venture upon an undertaking.他太胆小,不敢从事任何事业。
3 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
4 marketing Boez7e     
  • They are developing marketing network.他们正在发展销售网络。
  • He often goes marketing.他经常去市场做生意。
5 fulfill Qhbxg     
  • If you make a promise you should fulfill it.如果你许诺了,你就要履行你的诺言。
  • This company should be able to fulfill our requirements.这家公司应该能够满足我们的要求。
6 functional 5hMxa     
  • The telephone was out of order,but is functional now.电话刚才坏了,但现在可以用了。
  • The furniture is not fancy,just functional.这些家具不是摆着好看的,只是为了实用。
7 utilize OiPwz     
  • The cook will utilize the leftover ham bone to make soup.厨师要用吃剩的猪腿骨做汤。
  • You must utilize all available resources.你必须利用一切可以得到的资源。
8 remarkable 8Vbx6     
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
9 warehouse 6h7wZ     
  • We freighted the goods to the warehouse by truck.我们用卡车把货物运到仓库。
  • The manager wants to clear off the old stocks in the warehouse.经理想把仓库里积压的存货处理掉。
10 analyze RwUzm     
vt.分析,解析 (=analyse)
  • We should analyze the cause and effect of this event.我们应该分析这场事变的因果。
  • The teacher tried to analyze the cause of our failure.老师设法分析我们失败的原因。
11 analyzed 483f1acae53789fbee273a644fdcda80     
v.分析( analyze的过去式和过去分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析
  • The doctors analyzed the blood sample for anemia. 医生们分析了贫血的血样。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The young man did not analyze the process of his captivation and enrapturement, for love to him was a mystery and could not be analyzed. 这年轻人没有分析自己蛊惑著迷的过程,因为对他来说,爱是个不可分析的迷。 来自《简明英汉词典》
12 embodies 6b48da551d6920b8da8eb01ebc400297     
v.表现( embody的第三人称单数 );象征;包括;包含
  • The new treaty embodies the aspirations of most nonaligned countries. 新条约体现了大多数不结盟国家的愿望。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • This document embodies the concern of the government for the deformity. 这个文件体现了政府对残疾人的关怀。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
13 overflow fJOxZ     
  • The overflow from the bath ran on to the floor.浴缸里的水溢到了地板上。
  • After a long period of rain,the river may overflow its banks.长时间的下雨天后,河水可能溢出岸来。
14 graphic Aedz7     
  • The book gave a graphic description of the war.这本书生动地描述了战争的情况。
  • Distinguish important text items in lists with graphic icons.用图标来区分重要的文本项。
15 interface e5Wx1     
  • My computer has a network interface,which allows me to get to other computers.我的计算机有网络接口可以与其它计算机连在一起。
  • This program has perspicuous interface and extensive application. 该程序界面明了,适用范围广。
16 integration G5Pxk     
  • We are working to bring about closer political integration in the EU.我们正在努力实现欧盟內部更加紧密的政治一体化。
  • This was the greatest event in the annals of European integration.这是欧洲统一史上最重大的事件。
17 hybrid pcBzu     
  • That is a hybrid perpetual rose.那是一株杂交的四季开花的蔷薇。
  • The hybrid was tall,handsome,and intelligent.那混血儿高大、英俊、又聪明。
18 discrete 1Z5zn     
  • The picture consists of a lot of discrete spots of colour.这幅画由许多不相连的色点组成。
  • Most staple fibers are discrete,individual entities.大多数短纤维是不联系的单独实体。
19 computing tvBzxs     
  • to work in computing 从事信息处理
  • Back in the dark ages of computing, in about 1980, they started a software company. 早在计算机尚未普及的时代(约1980年),他们就创办了软件公司。
20 querying f41c6f0db9bfe77d6d471b68a9b578b7     
v.质疑,对…表示疑问( query的现在分词 );询问
  • For example, this problem crops up frequently when querying databases. 例如,在查询数据库时,这一问题频频出现。 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
  • He was always querying subordinates. 他老是对他的部下盘根问底。 来自辞典例句
21 timing rgUzGC     
  • The timing of the meeting is not convenient.会议的时间安排不合适。
  • The timing of our statement is very opportune.我们发表声明选择的时机很恰当。
22 supervision hr6wv     
  • The work was done under my supervision.这项工作是在我的监督之下完成的。
  • The old man's will was executed under the personal supervision of the lawyer.老人的遗嘱是在律师的亲自监督下执行的。
23 synchronous bqswx     
  • The message can be used only with synchronous operations.消息只能与同步操作一起使用。
  • Synchronous machines do not easily fall out of step under normal conditions.在正常情况下,同步电机不易失去同步。
24 agile Ix2za     
  • She is such an agile dancer!她跳起舞来是那么灵巧!
  • An acrobat has to be agile.杂技演员必须身手敏捷。
25 component epSzv     
  • Each component is carefully checked before assembly.每个零件在装配前都经过仔细检查。
  • Blade and handle are the component parts of a knife.刀身和刀柄是一把刀的组成部分。
26 flexibility vjPxb     
  • Her great strength lies in her flexibility.她的优势在于她灵活变通。
  • The flexibility of a man's muscles will lessen as he becomes old.人老了肌肉的柔韧性将降低。
27 embodying 6e759eac57252cfdb6d5d502ccc75f4b     
v.表现( embody的现在分词 );象征;包括;包含
  • Every instrument constitutes an independent contract embodying a payment obligation. 每张票据都构成一份独立的体现支付义务的合同。 来自口语例句
  • Fowth, The aesthetical transcendency and the beauty embodying the man's liberty. \" 第四部分:审美的超越和作为人类自由最终体现的“美”。 来自互联网
28 implement WcdzG     
  • Don't undertake a project unless you can implement it.不要承担一项计划,除非你能完成这项计划。
  • The best implement for digging a garden is a spade.在花园里挖土的最好工具是铁锹。
29 implemented a0211e5272f6fc75ac06e2d62558aff0     
v.实现( implement的过去式和过去分词 );执行;贯彻;使生效
  • This agreement, if not implemented, is a mere scrap of paper. 这个协定如不执行只不过是一纸空文。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • The economy is in danger of collapse unless far-reaching reforms are implemented. 如果不实施影响深远的改革,经济就面临崩溃的危险。 来自辞典例句
30 applied Tz2zXA     
  • She plans to take a course in applied linguistics.她打算学习应用语言学课程。
  • This cream is best applied to the face at night.这种乳霜最好晚上擦脸用。
31 adoption UK7yu     
  • An adoption agency had sent the boys to two different families.一个收养机构把他们送给两个不同的家庭。
  • The adoption of this policy would relieve them of a tremendous burden.采取这一政策会给他们解除一个巨大的负担。
32 supplementary 0r6ws     
  • There is a supplementary water supply in case the rain supply fails.万一主水源断了,我们另外有供水的地方。
  • A supplementary volume has been published containing the index.附有索引的增补卷已经出版。
33 implementation 2awxV     
  • Implementation of the program is now well underway.这一项目的实施现在行情看好。
34 orientations 0fe4bdb2d2133dafeb851bee3d9c63d0     
n.方向( orientation的名词复数 );定位;(任职等前的)培训;环境判定
  • Welfare comparisons are also hindered by differences in orientations among economic systems. 经济制度之间倾向性的差别也会妨碍福利的比较。 来自辞典例句
  • Their different value orientations led to different results in literary creation. 价值取向的分野亦导致了不同的创作局面。 来自互联网
35 trainees 576ef87c519dfddb06b6987e1e66077f     
新兵( trainee的名词复数 ); 练习生; 接受训练的人; 训练中的动物
  • We've taken on our full complement of new trainees. 我们招收的新学员已经满额了。
  • The trainees were put through an assault course. 受训人员接受了突击训练课程。
36 sectors 218ffb34fa5fb6bc1691e90cd45ad627     
n.部门( sector的名词复数 );领域;防御地区;扇形
  • Berlin was divided into four sectors after the war. 战后柏林分成了4 个区。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Industry and agriculture are the two important sectors of the national economy. 工业和农业是国民经济的两个重要部门。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
37 maker DALxN     
  • He is a trouble maker,You must be distant with him.他是个捣蛋鬼,你不要跟他在一起。
  • A cabinet maker must be a master craftsman.家具木工必须是技艺高超的手艺人。
38 authorized jyLzgx     
  • An administrative order is valid if authorized by a statute.如果一个行政命令得到一个法规的认可那么这个命令就是有效的。
39 redounded ba212477345ef7f06536650dac243dff     
v.有助益( redound的过去式和过去分词 );及于;报偿;报应
  • The ill-doings of the fascist chieftain redounded upon himself. 法西斯头子干的种种坏事使他自食其果。 来自辞典例句
  • His past misdeeds redounded on him. 他过去所做的坏事报应在他自己身上。 来自辞典例句
40 annually VzYzNO     
  • Many migratory birds visit this lake annually.许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
  • They celebrate their wedding anniversary annually.他们每年庆祝一番结婚纪念日。
41 forerunners 5365ced34e1aafb25807c289c4f2259d     
n.先驱( forerunner的名词复数 );开路人;先兆;前兆
  • Country music was undoubtedly one of the forerunners of rock and roll. 乡村音乐无疑是摇滚乐的先导之一。
  • Heavy clouds are the forerunners of a storm. 阴云密布是暴风雨的前兆。 来自《简明英汉词典》
42 linkage l01xl     
  • In their monographic treatment of linkage,they have emphasized this especially.他们在论连锁的专题文章中特别强调了这点。
  • Occasionally,problems with block inheritance or linkage are encountered.有时会遇到区段遗传或连锁问题。
43 undertakings e635513464ec002d92571ebd6bc9f67e     
企业( undertaking的名词复数 ); 保证; 殡仪业; 任务
  • The principle of diligence and frugality applies to all undertakings. 勤俭节约的原则适用于一切事业。
  • Such undertakings require the precise planning and foresight of military operations. 此举要求军事上战役中所需要的准确布置和预见。
44 savings ZjbzGu     
  • I can't afford the vacation,for it would eat up my savings.我度不起假,那样会把我的积蓄用光的。
  • By this time he had used up all his savings.到这时,他的存款已全部用完。
45 hindrance AdKz2     
  • Now they can construct tunnel systems without hindrance.现在他们可以顺利地建造隧道系统了。
  • The heavy baggage was a great hindrance to me.那件行李成了我的大累赘。
46 strictly GtNwe     
  • His doctor is dieting him strictly.他的医生严格规定他的饮食。
  • The guests were seated strictly in order of precedence.客人严格按照地位高低就座。
47 unreasonable tjLwm     
  • I know that they made the most unreasonable demands on you.我知道他们对你提出了最不合理的要求。
  • They spend an unreasonable amount of money on clothes.他们花在衣服上的钱太多了。
48 mechanism zCWxr     
  • The bones and muscles are parts of the mechanism of the body.骨骼和肌肉是人体的组成部件。
  • The mechanism of the machine is very complicated.这台机器的结构是非常复杂的。
49 inventory 04xx7     
  • Some stores inventory their stock once a week.有些商店每周清点存货一次。
  • We will need to call on our supplier to get more inventory.我们必须请供应商送来更多存货。
50 postponed 9dc016075e0da542aaa70e9f01bf4ab1     
vt.& vi.延期,缓办,(使)延迟vt.把…放在次要地位;[语]把…放在后面(或句尾)vi.(疟疾等)延缓发作(或复发)
  • The trial was postponed indefinitely. 审讯无限期延迟。
  • The game has already been postponed three times. 这场比赛已经三度延期了。
51 streamlines f7297cb36052a6b335e2407e1d599c53     
把…做成流线型( streamline的名词复数 ); 简化使效率更高; (系统、机构等)效率更高; (尤指)使增产节约
  • In a junction, there is no fixed pattern of streamlines. 在接头中,流线没有固定图形。
  • Small droplets tend to follow the streamlines of the air. 小水滴顺着气流运动。
52 implements 37371cb8af481bf82a7ea3324d81affc     
n.工具( implement的名词复数 );家具;手段;[法律]履行(契约等)v.实现( implement的第三人称单数 );执行;贯彻;使生效
  • Primitive man hunted wild animals with crude stone implements. 原始社会的人用粗糙的石器猎取野兽。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • They ordered quantities of farm implements. 他们订购了大量农具。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
53 retrieved 1f81ff822b0877397035890c32e35843     
v.取回( retrieve的过去式和过去分词 );恢复;寻回;检索(储存的信息)
  • Yesterday I retrieved the bag I left in the train. 昨天我取回了遗留在火车上的包。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He reached over and retrieved his jacket from the back seat. 他伸手从后座上取回了自己的夹克。 来自辞典例句
54 silicon dykwJ     
  • This company pioneered the use of silicon chip.这家公司开创了使用硅片的方法。
  • A chip is a piece of silicon about the size of a postage stamp.芯片就是一枚邮票大小的硅片。
55 dynamics NuSzQq     
  • In order to succeed,you must master complicated knowledge of dynamics.要取得胜利,你必须掌握很复杂的动力学知识。
  • Dynamics is a discipline that cannot be mastered without extensive practice.动力学是一门不做大量习题就不能掌握的学科。