哈佛大学发布一份关于哈佛大学与奴隶制历史联系的报告
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2022-05-06 07:11 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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美国哈佛大学4月26日发布了一份关于哈佛大学与奴隶制历史联系的报告,报告称,从1636年哈佛大学成立到1783年美国马萨诸塞州禁止奴隶制,奴隶制曾是哈佛大学生活中不可或缺的一部分,哈佛大学的教师和负责人在此期间奴役了70名黑人和原住民。另外,奴隶制在美国盛行时期,不少为哈佛大学提供资金的捐助者都曾利用美国南部和加勒比地区的奴隶贸易和奴隶劳作的种植园获利。
 
An internal committee commissioned by Harvard University has published an exhaustive inquiry1 into the prestigious2 school's history and ties to slavery and the study of eugenics, university president Lawrence Bacow announced on Tuesday, adding that the school was setting aside $100 million to "make amends3" for its past transgressions4.
哈佛大学校长劳伦斯·巴科4月26日宣布,哈佛大学委托的一个内部委员会公布了一份详尽的调查报告,调查这所名校历史上与奴隶制和优生学研究的联系。他还表示,该校将拨出1亿美元用于“弥补”其曾经的过错。
 
Harvard profited from "the beneficence of donors5 who accumulated their wealth through slave trading; from the labor6 of enslaved people on plantations7 in the Caribbean islands and in the American South; and from the Northern textile manufacturing industry, supplied with cotton grown by enslaved people held in bondage," the report, published on Tuesday by the Presidential Committee on Harvard and the Legacy8 of Slavery, revealed.
哈佛大学奴隶制遗产委员会4月26日发布的报告称,哈佛从“通过奴隶贸易积累财富的捐赠者的慈善行为中获利;从加勒比岛屿和美国南部种植园中的奴隶的劳动中获利;从奴役奴隶种植棉花的北方纺织制造业中获利。”
 
Indeed, "more than a third of the money donated to or promised to Harvard by private individuals came from just five men who made their fortunes from slavery and slave-produced commodities," including cotton, the report found.
报告发现,事实上,“私人捐赠或承诺捐赠给哈佛大学的资金超过三分之一来自五个人,他们通过奴隶制和奴隶生产的棉花等商品发家致富”。
 
Bacow initially9 formed the committee in 2019 in order to probe the school's "historic ties to slavery - direct, financial, and intellectual." Its report found that from 1636 to 1783, the school enslaved 70 people, some of whom were responsible for caring for the university's presidents, professors and students.
该委员会成立于2019年,目的是调查哈佛大学“与奴隶制的历史联系——包括直接的、经济的和知识层面的联系”。报告发现,从1636年到1783年,学校奴役了70人,其中一些人负责照顾学校校长、教授和学生。
 
Harvard didn't just benefit from slavery - it took concrete steps to quash abolitionist sentiment on campus, according to the committee, which made a point of countering the popular narrative10 that places New England at the center of the "antislavery moment" and in particular casts Harvard's home state of Massachusetts as a “hotbed of opposition11 to slavery.”
据该委员会称,哈佛不仅从奴隶制中受益,还采取了具体措施压制校园里的废奴主义情绪。该委员会特别反驳了将新英格兰视为"反奴隶制"中心的流行说法,尤其是将哈佛大学所在的马萨诸塞州视为 "废奴制的温床"。
 
Harvard's medical school admitted three black students in 1850 but subsequently expelled them following complaints from white students and alumni, and only admitted an average of three black students per year as late as 1940, according to the report, which noted12 that Harvard was still promoting the study of eugenics - central to World War II-era "race sciences" - at the time. Harvard's women's college, Radcliffe, denied housing to its few black students.
哈佛大学医学院在1850年录取了三名黑人学生,但随后在白人学生和校友的投诉下将他们开除,据该报告称,截至1940年,哈佛大学平均每年只录取三名黑人学生。报告指出,哈佛当时仍在推动优生学研究(二战时期“种族科学”的核心)。哈佛女子学院拉德克利夫学院拒绝为少数黑人学生提供住房。
 
Additionally, Harvard Law School's first professorship was established with the profits of the slave trade in the form of a bequest13 from Isaac Royall Jr., a rich slave merchant who left the school a hefty sum in his will in 1781. The university incorporated elements of the family's coat of arms into its law school seal, an issue which became controversial in 2016, leading to the retirement14 of the seal and Royall's denunciation as "the son of an Antiguan slaveholder known to have treated his slaves with extreme cruelty."
此外,哈佛大学法学院的第一个教授职位是用奴隶贸易赚取的财富——来自富有的奴隶商人小艾萨克·罗亚尔的一笔遗赠——设立的,罗亚尔在1781年的遗嘱中赠予哈佛一笔巨款。哈佛大学将该家族的徽章元素纳入其法学院的印章,这在2016年引发争议,导致法学院印章被弃用。罗亚尔因是“一个安提瓜奴隶主的儿子”而被抨击,这个臭名昭著的奴隶主“以极端残忍的方式对待他的奴隶”。
 
Many such problematic "early benefactors15" left their names on buildings and professorships and their images in statues sprinkled throughout campus, according to the report, which found that "the color line held at Harvard" despite the official collapse16 of slavery following the Civil War. Harvard's longest-serving president and other prominent academics were key figures in the study of eugenics, a pseudoscience used to justify17 racial segregation18 in the US and abroad.
报告称,许多有问题的“早期赞助者”在哈佛大学的建筑和教授职位上留名,而他们的雕塑也遍布校园。报告发现,尽管美国内战后奴隶制正式瓦解,但“哈佛的肤色线”依然存在。哈佛大学任期最长的校长和其他著名学者是优生学研究的关键人物。优生学是一门伪科学,用于为美国和其他国家的种族隔离辩护。
 
The report calls on the university to "identify, engage, and support" direct descendants of enslaved workers early in the university's history, which included Black and Native American slaves. The primary recommendation was to offer increased access to educational opportunities, while also attempting to reach broader groups that have largely been excluded from attending Harvard.
该报告呼吁,大学应该“识别、雇佣并资助”其历史早期奴工的直系后裔,包括黑人与原住民,并建议提供更多教育机会,以及尝试触及一般情况下无法就读于哈佛大学的更大群体。
 
The report recommends a closer partnership19 between Harvard and historically Black colleges and universities, in part through the creation of a new "Du Bois Scholars Program," to subsidize semester, summer or yearlong visits from HBCU students to Harvard.
报告建议,哈佛大学要与传统的黑人学院和大学(HBCU)建立更紧密的合作。其部分目标将通过创建新的“杜波依斯学者计划”实现,后者对HBCU学生在哈佛的学期、暑假或全年访学提供补贴。
 
"Harvard benefited from and in some ways perpetuated20 practices that were profoundly immoral," Bacow wrote in his letter accompanying the report, arguing the school bears "a moral responsibility to do what we can to address the persistent21 corrosive22 effects of those historical practices on individuals, on Harvard, and on our society."
巴科在报告随附信件中写道:“哈佛从极其不道德的做法中受益,并在某种程度上延续了这些做法。”他认为,哈佛“有道德责任尽我们所能解决这些历史做法对个人、哈佛和社会的持续腐蚀性影响”。


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1 inquiry nbgzF     
n.打听,询问,调查,查问
参考例句:
  • Many parents have been pressing for an inquiry into the problem.许多家长迫切要求调查这个问题。
  • The field of inquiry has narrowed down to five persons.调查的范围已经缩小到只剩5个人了。
2 prestigious nQ2xn     
adj.有威望的,有声望的,受尊敬的
参考例句:
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.这个年轻人毕业于一所名牌大学。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能会加入一个知名杂志做编辑。
3 amends AzlzCR     
n. 赔偿
参考例句:
  • He made amends for his rudeness by giving her some flowers. 他送给她一些花,为他自己的鲁莽赔罪。
  • This country refuses stubbornly to make amends for its past war crimes. 该国顽固地拒绝为其过去的战争罪行赔罪。
4 transgressions f7112817f127579f99e58d6443eb2871     
n.违反,违法,罪过( transgression的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Many marine transgressions occur across coastal plains. 许多海运是横越滨海平原。 来自辞典例句
  • For I know my transgressions, and my sin always before me. 因为我知道我的过犯,我的罪常在我面前。 来自互联网
5 donors 89b49c2bd44d6d6906d17dca7315044b     
n.捐赠者( donor的名词复数 );献血者;捐血者;器官捐献者
参考例句:
  • Please email us to be removed from our active list of blood donors. 假如你想把自己的名字从献血联系人名单中删去,请给我们发电子邮件。
  • About half this amount comes from individual donors and bequests. 这笔钱大约有一半来自个人捐赠及遗赠。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 labor P9Tzs     
n.劳动,努力,工作,劳工;分娩;vi.劳动,努力,苦干;vt.详细分析;麻烦
参考例句:
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
7 plantations ee6ea2c72cc24bed200cd75cf6fbf861     
n.种植园,大农场( plantation的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • Soon great plantations, supported by slave labor, made some families very wealthy. 不久之后出现了依靠奴隶劳动的大庄园,使一些家庭成了富豪。 来自英汉非文学 - 政府文件
  • Winterborne's contract was completed, and the plantations were deserted. 维恩特波恩的合同完成后,那片林地变得荒废了。 来自辞典例句
8 legacy 59YzD     
n.遗产,遗赠;先人(或过去)留下的东西
参考例句:
  • They are the most precious cultural legacy our forefathers left.它们是我们祖先留下来的最宝贵的文化遗产。
  • He thinks the legacy is a gift from the Gods.他认为这笔遗产是天赐之物。
9 initially 273xZ     
adv.最初,开始
参考例句:
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首先遭到美国的反对。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
10 narrative CFmxS     
n.叙述,故事;adj.叙事的,故事体的
参考例句:
  • He was a writer of great narrative power.他是一位颇有记述能力的作家。
  • Neither author was very strong on narrative.两个作者都不是很善于讲故事。
11 opposition eIUxU     
n.反对,敌对
参考例句:
  • The party leader is facing opposition in his own backyard.该党领袖在自己的党內遇到了反对。
  • The police tried to break down the prisoner's opposition.警察设法制住了那个囚犯的反抗。
12 noted 5n4zXc     
adj.著名的,知名的
参考例句:
  • The local hotel is noted for its good table.当地的那家酒店以餐食精美而著称。
  • Jim is noted for arriving late for work.吉姆上班迟到出了名。
13 bequest dWPzq     
n.遗赠;遗产,遗物
参考例句:
  • In his will he made a substantial bequest to his wife.在遗嘱里他给妻子留下了一大笔遗产。
  • The library has received a generous bequest from a local businessman.图书馆从当地一位商人那里得到了一大笔遗赠。
14 retirement TWoxH     
n.退休,退职
参考例句:
  • She wanted to enjoy her retirement without being beset by financial worries.她想享受退休生活而不必为金钱担忧。
  • I have to put everything away for my retirement.我必须把一切都积蓄起来以便退休后用。
15 benefactors 18fa832416cde88e9f254e94b7de4ebf     
n.捐助者,施主( benefactor的名词复数 );恩人
参考例句:
  • I rate him among my benefactors. 我认为他是我的一个恩人。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • We showed high respect to benefactors. 我们对捐助者表达了崇高的敬意。 来自辞典例句
16 collapse aWvyE     
vi.累倒;昏倒;倒塌;塌陷
参考例句:
  • The country's economy is on the verge of collapse.国家的经济已到了崩溃的边缘。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程师对桥的倒塌做了一次彻底的调查分析。
17 justify j3DxR     
vt.证明…正当(或有理),为…辩护
参考例句:
  • He tried to justify his absence with lame excuses.他想用站不住脚的借口为自己的缺席辩解。
  • Can you justify your rude behavior to me?你能向我证明你的粗野行为是有道理的吗?
18 segregation SESys     
n.隔离,种族隔离
参考例句:
  • Many school boards found segregation a hot potato in the early 1960s.在60年代初,许多学校部门都觉得按水平分班是一个棘手的问题。
  • They were tired to death of segregation and of being kicked around.他们十分厌恶种族隔离和总是被人踢来踢去。
19 partnership NmfzPy     
n.合作关系,伙伴关系
参考例句:
  • The company has gone into partnership with Swiss Bank Corporation.这家公司已经和瑞士银行公司建立合作关系。
  • Martin has taken him into general partnership in his company.马丁已让他成为公司的普通合伙人。
20 perpetuated ca69e54073d3979488ad0a669192bc07     
vt.使永存(perpetuate的过去式与过去分词形式)
参考例句:
  • This system perpetuated itself for several centuries. 这一制度维持了几个世纪。
  • I never before saw smile caught like that, and perpetuated. 我从来没有看见过谁的笑容陷入这样的窘况,而且持续不变。 来自辞典例句
21 persistent BSUzg     
adj.坚持不懈的,执意的;持续的
参考例句:
  • Albert had a persistent headache that lasted for three days.艾伯特连续头痛了三天。
  • She felt embarrassed by his persistent attentions.他不时地向她大献殷勤,使她很难为情。
22 corrosive wzsxn     
adj.腐蚀性的;有害的;恶毒的
参考例句:
  • Many highly corrosive substances are used in the nuclear industry.核工业使用许多腐蚀性很强的物质。
  • Many highly corrosive substances are used in the nuclear industry.核工业使用许多腐蚀性很强的物质。
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