文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2011-04-28 01:32 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Several years ago, Suparna Rajaram noticed a strange sort of contagion1(传染病,蔓延) in a couple she was close to. One partner acquired dementia—and the other lost the nourishing pleasures of joint2 reminiscence(回忆,怀旧) . "When the other person cannot validate3 shared memories," said Rajaram, "they are both robbed of the past." From this observation came a keen and enduring interest in the social nature of memory, an area of scholarship occupied mostly by philosophers, sociologists, and historians—and notably4 unattended to until recently by cognitive5 psychologists.

So Rajaram, a psychology6 professor at Stony7 Brook8 University, began to specialize in "collaborative memory"—or how people learn and remember in groups. People generally believe that collaboration9 helps memory—but does it always? "How is memory shaped by being experienced in a social context?" These are the questions Rajaram investigates in the lab—and addresses in a new paper published in Current Directions in Psychological Science, a journal of the Association for Psychological Science.

Some findings in the field of collaborative memory research have been counter intuitive(直觉的) . For one, collaboration can hurt memory. Some studies have compared the recall of items on lists by "collaborative groups," or those who study together, and "nominal10 groups," in which individuals work alone and the results are collated11. The collaborative groups remembered more items than any single person would have done alone. But they also remembered fewer than the nominal groups did by totaling the efforts of its solitary12 workers. In other words, the collaborators' whole was less than the sum of its parts.

This so-called "collaborative inhibition" affects recall for all sorts of things, from word pairs to emotionally laden13(负载的) events; it affects strangers or spouses14, children or adults. It is, in scientific lingo15, "robust16."

What explains this? One dynamic is "retrieval disruption": Each person remembers in his or her own way, and compelled to listen to others, can't use those strategies effectively. Sometimes that effect fades. Sometimes it squashes the memories for good, causing "post collaborative forgetting." Then there's "social contagion" of errors, wherein a group member can implant17 erroneous recollections in another's memory.

On the other hand, collaborative learning helps—which is why people hold it in high esteem18. Individuals recall different information or events; after time, they can get together, contribute their bits, and reeducate each others' memories and expand the group's recall, mitigating19 the costs of collaboration. People can also correct each other's erroneous memories, a process Rajaram and her colleagues call "error pruning20." Or they can "cross-cue"—bring up recollections that jog memories others have forgotten.

Rajaram's work involves small groups in the controlled laboratory environment. Yet, like others in her field, she believes it can inform the understanding of the wider "networks in which social memory phenomena21 are occurring"—classrooms, institutions, communities, subcultures, or nations.

"If a small group can reshape memories, we see how individuals come to hold certain viewpoints or perspectives," she says. "That can serve as a model for how collective identities and histories are shaped."


1 contagion 9ZNyl     
  • A contagion of fear swept through the crowd.一种恐惧感在人群中迅速蔓延开。
  • The product contagion effect has numerous implications for marketing managers and retailers.产品传染效应对市场营销管理者和零售商都有很多的启示。
2 joint m3lx4     
  • I had a bad fall,which put my shoulder out of joint.我重重地摔了一跤,肩膀脫臼了。
  • We wrote a letter in joint names.我们联名写了封信。
3 validate Jiewm     
  • You need an official signature to validate the order.你要有正式的签字,这张汇票才能生效。
  • In order to validate the agreement,both parties sign it.为使协议有效,双方在上面签了字。
4 notably 1HEx9     
  • Many students were absent,notably the monitor.许多学生缺席,特别是连班长也没来。
  • A notably short,silver-haired man,he plays basketball with his staff several times a week.他个子明显较为矮小,一头银发,每周都会和他的员工一起打几次篮球。
5 cognitive Uqwz0     
  • As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
  • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
6 psychology U0Wze     
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
7 stony qu1wX     
  • The ground is too dry and stony.这块地太干,而且布满了石头。
  • He listened to her story with a stony expression.他带着冷漠的表情听她讲经历。
8 brook PSIyg     
  • In our room we could hear the murmur of a distant brook.在我们房间能听到远处小溪汩汩的流水声。
  • The brook trickled through the valley.小溪涓涓流过峡谷。
9 collaboration bW7yD     
  • The two companies are working in close collaboration each other.这两家公司密切合作。
  • He was shot for collaboration with the enemy.他因通敌而被枪毙了。
10 nominal Y0Tyt     
  • The king was only the nominal head of the state. 国王只是这个国家名义上的元首。
  • The charge of the box lunch was nominal.午餐盒饭收费很少。
11 collated 36df79bfd7bdf62b3b44f1a6f476ea69     
v.校对( collate的过去式和过去分词 );整理;核对;整理(文件或书等)
  • When both versions of the story were collated,major discrepancies were found. 在将这个故事的两个版本对照后,找出了主要的不符之处。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Information was collated from several data centers around the country. 信息从城市四周的几个数据中心得到校对。 来自互联网
12 solitary 7FUyx     
  • I am rather fond of a solitary stroll in the country.我颇喜欢在乡间独自徜徉。
  • The castle rises in solitary splendour on the fringe of the desert.这座城堡巍然耸立在沙漠的边际,显得十分壮美。
13 laden P2gx5     
  • He is laden with heavy responsibility.他肩负重任。
  • Dragging the fully laden boat across the sand dunes was no mean feat.将满载货物的船拖过沙丘是一件了不起的事。
14 spouses 3fbe4097e124d44af1bc18e63e898b65     
n.配偶,夫或妻( spouse的名词复数 )
  • Jobs are available for spouses on campus and in the community. 校园里和社区里有配偶可做的工作。 来自辞典例句
  • An astonishing number of spouses-most particularly in the upper-income brackets-have no close notion of their husbands'paychecks. 相当大一部分妇女——特别在高收入阶层——并不很了解他们丈夫的薪金。 来自辞典例句
15 lingo S0exp     
  • If you live abroad it helps to know the local lingo.住在国外,学一点当地的语言自有好处。
  • Don't use all that technical lingo try and explain in plain English.别尽用那种专门术语,用普通的词语解释吧。
16 robust FXvx7     
  • She is too tall and robust.她个子太高,身体太壮。
  • China wants to keep growth robust to reduce poverty and avoid job losses,AP commented.美联社评论道,中国希望保持经济强势增长,以减少贫困和失业状况。
17 implant YaBxT     
  • A good teacher should implant high ideals in children.好教师应该把高尚理想灌输给孩子们。
  • The operation to implant the artificial heart took two hours.人工心脏植入手术花费了两小时。
18 esteem imhyZ     
  • I did not esteem him to be worthy of trust.我认为他不值得信赖。
  • The veteran worker ranks high in public love and esteem.那位老工人深受大伙的爱戴。
19 mitigating 465c18cfa2b0e25daca50035121a4217     
v.减轻,缓和( mitigate的现在分词 )
  • Are there any mitigating circumstances in this case ? 本案中是否有任何情况可以减轻被告的罪行? 来自辞典例句
  • A sentencing judge is required to consider any mitigating circumstances befor imposing the death penalty. 在处死刑之前,要求量刑法官必须考虑是否有任何减轻罪行之情节。 来自口语例句
20 pruning 6e4e50e38fdf94b800891c532bf2f5e7     
n.修枝,剪枝,修剪v.修剪(树木等)( prune的现在分词 );精简某事物,除去某事物多余的部分
  • In writing an essay one must do a lot of pruning. 写文章要下一番剪裁的工夫。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • A sapling needs pruning, a child discipline. 小树要砍,小孩要管。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
21 phenomena 8N9xp     
  • Ade couldn't relate the phenomena with any theory he knew.艾德无法用他所知道的任何理论来解释这种现象。
  • The object of these experiments was to find the connection,if any,between the two phenomena.这些实验的目的就是探索这两种现象之间的联系,如果存在着任何联系的话。
TAG标签: social research memory