文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-11-19 05:08 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

"We were able to show that the benefit of social bonding accrues1(获得,积累) through 'the manipulation of ones' own and others' social relationships,' which is one definition of politics," said Oliver Schülke of Georg August University Göttingen in Germany. "The bond does not directly affect access to desirable resources but helps males to climb up the social ladder and to stay up there at the cost of other males that lose their status." Earlier evidence had shown that female animals live longer and have more offspring when they form strong bonds with other females. The benefit of friendship in the case of females is usually explained by greater access to food and safety. But, given the strong competition among males for access to mates, scientists had generally expected that evolutionary2 forces would work against male bonding, particularly in groups like those of the macaques(猕猴,恒河猴) , in which male members typically aren't close kin3.

In the current study, Schülke and his colleague Julia Ostner focused on wild male Assamese macaques living in their natural environment in Thailand. They found that males do maintain social relationships with other males in which both members spend time together and groom4 one another. Those bonds aren't confined to potential kin.

Males with stronger bonds to other males tended to form coalitions5, and those coalitions predicted future social dominance, the researchers report. The strength of males' social bonds was directly linked to the number of offspring they sired.

"We have shown for the first time that having close friends makes males more successful in terms of social status and paternity," Ostner said.

The researchers added that they are "quite confident" that it is not the other way around—that successful males attract more friends. "The effect of friendship on success materializes in the future," they said. "Success does not make for future friendships."

Schülke and Ostner said that earlier work in chimpanzees starting with Jane Goodall had shown that strong bonds among males promote alliance formation in conflicts over status. But, they said, chimps6 are different from macaques in that they stay in their natal7(出生的,分娩的) groups all their lives, often bonding with brothers or at least with other males that they are sure to live with for long periods of time. On the other hand, male macaques all leave the groups they are born into sooner or later, resulting in a male society that is much more fluid.

The researchers expect that their findings will apply to other species, in cases in which males live in large groups with many males for long enough to develop bonds and benefit from them. The findings in primates8 may also provide insight into our own social lives.

"Our results suggest that the universal tendency of humans to form close social ties has evolutionary roots outside the extended family," the researchers said. "This long evolutionary history of a fundamental social trait may also explain why the loss of friendship or social integration9 has severe consequences for human mental and physical health."


1 accrues 7943be70390b5042496a2143270d5805     
v.增加( accrue的第三人称单数 );(通过自然增长)产生;获得;(使钱款、债务)积累
  • If you put money in the bank, interest accrues. 如你将钱存于银行,则自然生息。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Interest accrues on a bank accout. 银行账户的利息在增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
2 evolutionary Ctqz7m     
  • Life has its own evolutionary process.生命有其自身的进化过程。
  • These are fascinating questions to be resolved by the evolutionary studies of plants.这些十分吸引人的问题将在研究植物进化过程中得以解决。
3 kin 22Zxv     
  • He comes of good kin.他出身好。
  • She has gone to live with her husband's kin.她住到丈夫的亲戚家里去了。
4 groom 0fHxW     
  • His father was a groom.他父亲曾是个马夫。
  • George was already being groomed for the top job.为承担这份高级工作,乔治已在接受专门的培训。
5 coalitions d0242280efffddf593dc27d3aa62fa55     
结合体,同盟( coalition的名词复数 ); (两党或多党)联合政府
  • History testifies to the ineptitude of coalitions in waging war. 历史昭示我们,多数国家联合作战,其进行甚为困难。
  • All the coalitions in history have disintegrated sooner or later. 历史上任何联盟迟早都垮台了。
6 chimps 2a09048610e52de775e2fe426c063f06     
(非洲)黑猩猩( chimp的名词复数 )
  • Chimps are too scarce, and too nearly human, to be routinely slaughtered for spare parts. 黑猩猩又太少,也太接近于人类,不可以作为人器官备用件说杀就杀。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 医学的第四次革命
  • And as nonprimates, they provoke fewer ethical and safety-related concerns than chimps or baboons. 而且作为非灵长类,就不会产生像用黑猩猩或狒狒那样的伦理和安全方面的顾虑。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 医学的第四次革命
7 natal U14yT     
  • Many music-lovers make pilgrimages to Mozart's natal place.很多爱好音乐的人去访问莫扎特的出生地。
  • Since natal day,characters possess the visual elements such as dots and strokes.文字从诞生开始便具有了点画这样的视觉元素。
8 primates 9536f12c27d026e37c108bd6fc53dbba     
  • Primates are alert, inquisitive animals. 灵长目动物是机灵、好奇的动物。
  • Consciousness or cerebration has been said to have emerged in the evolution of higher primates. 据说意识或思考在较高级灵长类的进化中已出现。
9 integration G5Pxk     
  • We are working to bring about closer political integration in the EU.我们正在努力实现欧盟內部更加紧密的政治一体化。
  • This was the greatest event in the annals of European integration.这是欧洲统一史上最重大的事件。
TAG标签: social males bodns