文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-08-03 00:48 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

In the quest for efficient, cost-effective and commercially viable1(可行的) fuel cells, scientists at Cornell University's Energy Materials Center have discovered a catalyst2(催化剂) and catalyst-support combination that could make fuel cells more stable, conk-out free, inexpensive and more resistant3 to carbon monoxide(一氧化碳) poisoning. (Journal of the American Chemical Society, July 12, 2010.) The research, "Highly Stable and CO-Tolerant Pt/Ti0.7W0.3O2 Electrocatalyst for Proton-Exchange Membrane5 Fuel Cells," led by Héctor D. Abruña, Cornell professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and director of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2); Francis J. DiSalvo, Cornell professor Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Deli Wang, post doctoral researcher; Chinmayee V. Subban, graduate student; Hongsen Wang, research associate; and Eric Rus, graduate student. Hydrogen fuel cells offer an appealing(吸引人的) alternative to gasoline-burning cars: They have the potential to power vehicles for long distances using hydrogen as fuel, mitigate6(减轻,缓和) carbon dioxide production and emit only water vapor7.

However, fuel cells generally require very pure hydrogen to work. That means that conventional fuels must be stripped of carbon monoxide – a process that is too expensive to make fuel cells commercially viable.

Fuel cells work by electrochemically decomposing8(分解) fuel instead of burning it, converting energy directly into electricity.

The problem is that platinum9(铂) and platinum/ruthenium(钌) alloys10, which are often used as catalysts11 in PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cells, are expensive and easily rendered ineffective by exposure to even low levels of carbon monoxide.

To create a catalyst system that can tolerate more carbon monoxide, Abruña, DiSalvo and colleagues deposited platinum nanoparticles on a support material of titanium oxide4(三氧化钛) with added tungsten(钨) to increase its electrical conductivity. Their research shows that the new material works with fuel that contains as much as 2 percent carbon monoxide – a level that is about 2000 times that which typically poisons pure platinum. Also, the material is more stable and less expensive than pure platinum. With the new catalyst, said Abruña, "you can use much less-clean hydrogen, and that's more cost-effective because hydrogen derived12 from petroleum13 has a very high content of carbon monoxide. You need to scrub(擦洗) off the carbon monoxide and it's very expensive to do that."

The researchers are now preparing to put the catalyst to the test in real fuel cells. "So far, indications are very good," Abruña said. In preliminary experiments comparing the new material's performance with pure platinum, he added, the platinum cell was readily poisoned by carbon monoxide and conked out early. Said Abruña: "But ours was still running like a champ."


1 viable mi2wZ     
  • The scheme is economically viable.这个计划从经济效益来看是可行的。
  • The economy of the country is not viable.这个国家经济是难以维持的。
2 catalyst vOVzu     
  • A catalyst is a substance which speeds up a chemical reaction.催化剂是一种能加速化学反应的物质。
  • The workers'demand for better conditions was a catalyst for social change.工人们要求改善工作条件促进了社会变革。
3 resistant 7Wvxh     
  • Many pests are resistant to the insecticide.许多害虫对这种杀虫剂有抵抗力。
  • They imposed their government by force on the resistant population.他们以武力把自己的统治强加在持反抗态度的人民头上。
4 oxide K4dz8     
  • Oxide is usually seen in our daily life.在我们的日常生活中氧化物很常见。
  • How can you get rid of this oxide coating?你们该怎样除去这些氧化皮?
5 membrane H7ez8     
  • A vibrating membrane in the ear helps to convey sounds to the brain.耳膜的振动帮助声音传送到大脑。
  • A plastic membrane serves as selective diffusion barrier.一层塑料薄膜起着选择性渗透屏障的作用。
6 mitigate EjRyf     
  • The government is trying to mitigate the effects of inflation.政府正试图缓和通货膨胀的影响。
  • Governments should endeavour to mitigate distress.政府应努力缓解贫困问题。
7 vapor DHJy2     
  • The cold wind condenses vapor into rain.冷风使水蒸气凝结成雨。
  • This new machine sometimes transpires a lot of hot vapor.这部机器有时排出大量的热气。
8 decomposing f5b8fd5c51324ed24e58a14c223dc3da     
腐烂( decompose的现在分词 ); (使)分解; 分解(某物质、光线等)
  • The air was filled with the overpowering stench of decomposing vegetation. 空气中充满了令人难以忍受的腐烂植物的恶臭。
  • Heat was obtained from decomposing manures and hot air flues. 靠肥料分解和烟道为植物提供热量。
9 platinum CuOyC     
  • I'll give her a platinum ring.我打算送给她一枚白金戒指。
  • Platinum exceeds gold in value.白金的价值高于黄金。
10 alloys a0554febd06fadac0b9b8f0ad597e74d     
n.合金( alloy的名词复数 )
  • This is essentially a development of thoria dispersion strengthened nickel alloys. 这基本上是用二氧化钍弥散强度化的镍基合金。 来自辞典例句
  • The lack of deep hardening in these alloys negates their use. 这些合金缺乏深层硬化能力使它们无法利用。 来自辞典例句
11 catalysts 677fdea123458fc2ff92eb84d07254e9     
n.催化剂( catalyst的名词复数 );触媒;促进因素;有感染力的人
  • The first catalytic converters were called conventional oxidation catalysts. 最初的转化器叫做常规氧化催化器。 来自辞典例句
  • Many processes that are essential to the chemical industry use heterogeneous catalysts. 很多重要的化学工业过程就是使用多相催化剂的。 来自辞典例句
12 derived 6cddb7353e699051a384686b6b3ff1e2     
vi.起源;由来;衍生;导出v.得到( derive的过去式和过去分词 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
  • Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek. 英语很多词源出于拉丁文和希腊文。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derived his enthusiasm for literature from his father. 他对文学的爱好是受他父亲的影响。 来自《简明英汉词典》
13 petroleum WiUyi     
  • The Government of Iran advanced the price of petroleum last week.上星期伊朗政府提高了石油价格。
  • The purpose of oil refinery is to refine crude petroleum.炼油厂的主要工作是提炼原油。
TAG标签: cells fuel carbon