文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-07-09 06:50 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Social competence1(社交能力) and behavior problems that are evident at kindergarten and first grade are known to be strong predictors of a child's academic and social functioning. However, findings reported in the July issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry2(精神病学) suggest that psychosocial risk factors can be identified even earlier and can be observed during the transition from preschool(幼儿园) to formal schooling3. The article titled "Prevalence(流行,普遍) of DSM-IV Disorder4 in a Representative, Healthy Birth Cohort at School Entry: Sociodemographic(社会人口的) Risks and Social Adaptation" Dr. Alice S. Carter and colleagues report on 1,329 healthy children born between July 1995 and September 1997 in the New Haven–Meriden Standard Metropolitan5 Statistical6 Area of the 1990 Census7(人口普查) . The researchers sought to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders8 in the early elementary school years and to examine the relationship between the sociodemographic and psychosocial(社会心理的) risk factors and these disorders.

The study sample was ascertained9 through birth records, and represents one of the first longitudinal studies to evaluate psychopathology in children within the United States as they negotiate the transition to school. One parent from each family of a subsample(子样品) of 442 enriched for child psychopathology was interviewed using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children–Version IV (DISC IV) to determine the diagnosis10. Parents were surveyed about sociodemographic factors, such as parental11 age and education, and poverty as well as psychosocial characteristics. Both parents and teachers of the children were surveyed about social competence.

Dr. Carter and colleagues report that as children transition to formal schooling, approximately one in five (21.6%) will have a psychiatric disorder with impairment(损伤) . The findings confirm that the prevalence of psychopathology during the transition to school age is not dissimilar to that documented for preschool-aged children.

In addition, the risk of comorbidity(疾病) (the risk of two or more disorders of any type) was 5.8%. Within the study cohort, the prevalence of externalizing(外化) disorders was 13.8% and 11.1% for internalizing disorders. Of those individuals who had more than one disorder, more than 60% had both an externalizing and an internalizing disorder.

In the article, the researchers report, "Sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates included persistent12 poverty beginning in early childhood, limited parental education, low family expressiveness13, stressful life events, and violence exposure. Finally, diagnostic status was significantly associated with poorer social competence and family burden."

An accompanying editorial by Dr. Neil W. Boris of Tulane University can be found in the same issue of the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. About the study, Dr. Boris states, "More than anything, Carter et al. remind us that young children are at significant risk for psychopathology just like older children. As children transition to school age, be on the lookout14 for problems."

Commenting on the potential impact of their findings, Carter and colleagues observe, "Epidemological data on prevalence and risk co-incidence with disorders during the transition to school can and should inform conversations about psychosocial school readiness, early intervention15, and prevention programming."

Screening for psychopathology at the transition to school age is warranted and based on the impairment data of affected16 children early intervention seems appropriate. Cater17 and colleagues further state that, "intervention should also take into account the social context, not only within the school setting but also with respect to risk factors in the home and broader community."


1 competence NXGzV     
  • This mess is a poor reflection on his competence.这种混乱情况说明他难当此任。
  • These are matters within the competence of the court.这些是法院权限以内的事。
2 psychiatry g0Jze     
  • The study appeared in the Amercian science Journal of Psychiatry.这个研究发表在美国精神病学的杂志上。
  • A physician is someone who specializes in psychiatry.精神病专家是专门从事精神病治疗的人。
3 schooling AjAzM6     
  • A child's access to schooling varies greatly from area to area.孩子获得学校教育的机会因地区不同而大相径庭。
  • Backward children need a special kind of schooling.天赋差的孩子需要特殊的教育。
4 disorder Et1x4     
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
5 metropolitan mCyxZ     
  • Metropolitan buildings become taller than ever.大城市的建筑变得比以前更高。
  • Metropolitan residents are used to fast rhythm.大都市的居民习惯于快节奏。
6 statistical bu3wa     
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。
7 census arnz5     
  • A census of population is taken every ten years.人口普查每10年进行一次。
  • The census is taken one time every four years in our country.我国每四年一次人口普查。
8 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
9 ascertained e6de5c3a87917771a9555db9cf4de019     
v.弄清,确定,查明( ascertain的过去式和过去分词 )
  • The previously unidentified objects have now been definitely ascertained as being satellites. 原来所说的不明飞行物现在已证实是卫星。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • I ascertained that she was dead. 我断定她已经死了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
10 diagnosis GvPxC     
  • His symptoms gave no obvious pointer to a possible diagnosis.他的症状无法作出明确的诊断。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程师对桥的倒塌做一次彻底的调查分析。
11 parental FL2xv     
  • He encourages parental involvement in the running of school.他鼓励学生家长参与学校的管理。
  • Children always revolt against parental disciplines.孩子们总是反抗父母的管束。
12 persistent BSUzg     
  • Albert had a persistent headache that lasted for three days.艾伯特连续头痛了三天。
  • She felt embarrassed by his persistent attentions.他不时地向她大献殷勤,使她很难为情。
13 expressiveness 5t7z1e     
  • His painting rose to a fresh expressiveness and revealed a shrewder insight. 他的画富有一种新的表达力,显示出更敏锐的洞察力。
  • The audiences are impressed by the expressiveness of the actors. 演员们的丰富表情给观众留下了深刻的印象。
14 lookout w0sxT     
  • You can see everything around from the lookout.从了望台上你可以看清周围的一切。
  • It's a bad lookout for the company if interest rates don't come down.如果利率降不下来,公司的前景可就不妙了。
15 intervention e5sxZ     
  • The government's intervention in this dispute will not help.政府对这场争论的干预不会起作用。
  • Many people felt he would be hostile to the idea of foreign intervention.许多人觉得他会反对外来干预。
16 affected TzUzg0     
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
17 cater ickyJ     
  • I expect he will be able to cater for your particular needs.我预计他能满足你的特殊需要。
  • Most schools cater for children of different abilities.大多数学校能够满足具有不同天资的儿童的需要。