吃太晚容易长胖
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2022-10-21 07:58 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
(单词翻译:双击或拖选)
近日,一项发表在《细胞代谢》杂志的最新研究给出了明确回答:吃饭时间真的很重要!更晚地吃饭(如一天三顿的摄入时间比别人迟4个小时),会从三大方面诱发肥胖:增加食欲、降低能量消耗、改变脂肪组织基因的表达。吃太晚真的容易长胖,快把“时差”倒回来!

We all know that eating later in the day isn't good for our waistlines, but why? A new study weighed in on that question by comparing people who ate the same foods – but at different times in the day.
众所周知,吃饭晚更容易长胖,但这是为什么呢?一项新研究对此给出了科学依据。该研究比较了在一天内不同时段进食相同食物的人。

"Does the time that we eat matter when everything else is kept consistent?" said first author Nina Vujović, a researcher in the division of sleep and circadian disorders1 at Boston's Brigham and Women's Hospital.
该研究论文第一作者、波士顿布里格姆妇女医院睡眠和生物节律紊乱科研究员妮娜·武乔维奇提出:“当其他因素都相同时,吃饭的时间有影响吗?”

晚进食会使感到更饥饿的可能性翻倍

The answer was yes – eating later in the day will double your odds2 of being hungrier, according to the study published in the journal Cell Metabolism3.
答案是:是的。这篇发表在《细胞代谢》杂志上的研究论文显示,吃饭晚会使感到更饥饿的可能性翻倍。

"We found that eating four hours later makes a significant difference for our hunger levels, the way we burn calories after we eat, and the way we store fat," Vujović said. "Together, these changes may explain why late eating is associated with increased obesity4 risk reported by other studies and provide new biological insight into the underlying5 mechanisms6."
武乔维奇说:“我们发现,晚4个小时进食对饥饿程度、进食后燃烧卡路里的方式以及储存脂肪的方式都有显著影响。总之,这些变化可能解释其他研究发现的吃饭晚与肥胖风险增加的关联,并为其中的潜在机制提供了新的生物学见解。”

The study provides support for the concept that circadian rhythm, which influences key physiologic7 functions such as body temperature and heart rate, affects how our bodies absorb fuel, researchers said.
研究人员称,这项研究为以下观点提供支持:生物节律影响体温心率等关键生理功能,影响身体吸收能量的方式。

The study does show eating later results in "an increase in hunger, impacts hormones9 and also changes gene10 expression, especially in terms of fat metabolism with a tendency towards less fat breakdown11 and more fat deposition," said Dr. Bhanu Prakash Kolla, a professor of psychiatry12 and psychology13 at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and a consultant14 to Mayo's Center for Sleep Medicine and Division of Addiction15 Medicine.
巴努·普拉卡什·科拉博士称,该研究确实表明,吃得晚会导致“饥饿感增加,影响激素水平,也会改变基因表达,特别是在脂肪代谢方面,会导致脂肪分解减少,脂肪沉积增多。”科拉是梅奥临床医学院精神病学和心理学教授、梅奥睡眠医学中心和成瘾医学部顾问。

The study was small – only 16 overweight or obese16 people – but carefully planned to eliminate other potential causes of weight gain, the authors said.
研究人员称,这项研究规模较小,参与者只有16名超重或肥胖人士,但精细设计消除了导致体重增加的其他潜在原因。

"While there have been other studies investigating why late eating associates with an increased risk for obesity, this may be the most well controlled, including strictly17 controlling the amount, composition and timing18 of meals, physical activity, sleep, room temperature and light exposure," said senior author Frank Scheer, director of the Medical Chronobiology Program in the Brigham's Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders.
布里格姆妇女医院睡眠和生物节律紊乱科医学生物钟项目主任、研究主要作者弗兰克·谢尔说:“虽然有研究探索了吃饭晚与肥胖风险增加的关系,但我们的研究可能是变量控制最严格的。包括严格控制进食量、餐食构成和用餐时间、体力活动、睡眠、室温和光照。”

All participants were in good health, with no history of diabetes19 or shift work, which can affect circadian rhythm, and had regular physical activity. Each person in the study kept to a strict healthy sleep/wake schedule for about three weeks and were provided with prepared meals at fixed20 times for three days before the lab experiment began.
所有参与者健康状况良好,没有糖尿病史或值班工作史(这些因素可能会影响生物节律),并且会进行规律的体育锻炼。所有实验参与者都有严格的健康作息时间表,持续约三周,并在实验室实验开始前的三天内,在固定的时间吃准备好的餐食。

Participants were then randomized into two groups. One group ate calorie-controlled meals at 8 am, noon and 4 pm, while the other ate the same meals four hours later, at noon, 4 pm and 8 pm for the six days reported in the study. Measures of hunger and appetite were gathered 18 times each while tests for body fat, temperature and energy expenditures21 were gathered on three separate days.
参与者随后被随机分为两组。在六天中,一组在上午8点、中午12点和下午4点吃控制热量的饭菜,另一组晚四小时进餐,分别在中午12点、下午4点和晚上8点吃同样的饭菜。研究人员分别收集了18次两组参与者的饥饿感和食欲的测量值,并在不同的三天里检测他们的体脂、温度和能量消耗。

After a break of a few weeks, the same participants reversed the procedure – those who had eaten earlier moved to the late eating group and vice22 versa, thus using each person as their own control.
休息几周后,上述参与者重复相反的程序,那些吃饭较早的人改为较晚进食,反之亦然,将每个人作为自己的对照。

Results showed that hunger pangs23 doubled for those on a night-eating regime. People who ate later in the day also reported a desire for starchy and salty foods, meat and, to a lesser24 extent, a desire for dairy foods and vegetables.
结果表明,晚进食的人饥饿感增加了一倍。晚进食的人称,他们渴望吃含淀粉和咸味的食物、肉,相比之下,没那么想吃乳制品和蔬菜。

晚进食会影响食欲调节激素,从而增加食欲

By looking at the results of blood tests, researchers were able to see why: Levels of leptin, a hormone8 which tells us when we feel full, were decreased for late eaters versus25 early eaters. In comparison, levels of the hormone ghrelin, which spikes26 our appetite, rose.
通过查看血检结果,研究人员发现了原因:与早进食者相比,晚进食者的瘦素水平降低,这是一种控制饱腹感的激素。相比之下,刺激食欲的激素胃促生长素水平升高。

"What is new is that our results show that late eating causes an increase in the ratio of ghrelin and leptin averaged across the full 24-hour sleep/wake cycle," Scheer said. In fact, the study found that the ratio of ghrelin to leptin rose by 34% when meals were eaten later in the day.
谢尔说:“我们研究中的新发现是,晚进食会导致整个生物节律中的胃促生长素和瘦素比升高。”研究发现,晚进餐时胃促生长素和瘦素比升高了34%。

"These changes in appetite-regulating hormones fits well with the increase in hunger and appetite with late eating," Scheer said.
谢尔说:“这些食欲调节激素的变化与晚进食导致的饥饿感和食欲的增强非常吻合。”

晚进食会改变脂肪组织的基因表达,更利于脂肪储存

When participants ate later in the day they also burned calories at a slower rate than when they ate at earlier times. Tests of their body fat found changes in genes27 that would impact how fat is burned or stored, the study found.
当参与者吃饭较晚时,他们消耗的卡路里也比早吃饭时慢。研究发现,通过检测参与者身体脂肪发现,基因的变化会影响脂肪的燃烧或储存方式。

"These changes in gene expression would support the growth of fat tissue by formation of more fat cells, as well as by increased fat storage," Scheer said.
谢尔说:“基因表达发生变化,将通过形成更多的脂肪细胞以及增加脂肪储存来支持脂肪组织的生长。”


点击收听单词发音收听单词发音  

1 disorders 6e49dcafe3638183c823d3aa5b12b010     
n.混乱( disorder的名词复数 );凌乱;骚乱;(身心、机能)失调
参考例句:
  • Reports of anorexia and other eating disorders are on the increase. 据报告,厌食症和其他饮食方面的功能紊乱发生率正在不断增长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The announcement led to violent civil disorders. 这项宣布引起剧烈的骚乱。 来自《简明英汉词典》
2 odds n5czT     
n.让步,机率,可能性,比率;胜败优劣之别
参考例句:
  • The odds are 5 to 1 that she will win.她获胜的机会是五比一。
  • Do you know the odds of winning the lottery once?你知道赢得一次彩票的几率多大吗?
3 metabolism 171zC     
n.新陈代谢
参考例句:
  • After years of dieting,Carol's metabolism was completely out of whack.经过数年的节食,卡罗尔的新陈代谢完全紊乱了。
  • All living matter undergoes a process of metabolism.生物都有新陈代谢。
4 obesity Dv1ya     
n.肥胖,肥大
参考例句:
  • One effect of overeating may be obesity.吃得过多能导致肥胖。
  • Sugar and fat can more easily lead to obesity than some other foods.糖和脂肪比其他食物更容易导致肥胖。
5 underlying 5fyz8c     
adj.在下面的,含蓄的,潜在的
参考例句:
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
6 mechanisms d0db71d70348ef1c49f05f59097917b8     
n.机械( mechanism的名词复数 );机械装置;[生物学] 机制;机械作用
参考例句:
  • The research will provide direct insight into molecular mechanisms. 这项研究将使人能够直接地了解分子的机理。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He explained how the two mechanisms worked. 他解释这两台机械装置是如何工作的。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 physiologic jNOx3     
a.生理学的
参考例句:
  • Resections in children do not produce a permanent physiologic handicap. 在儿童中,肝切除不致引起永久性生理障碍。
  • Abnormally low or high body temperatute effect a variety of physiologic responses including lowered metabolic rate. 不正常的低或高体温会影响动物体各种不同的生理应答,包括低代谢率。
8 hormone uyky3     
n.荷尔蒙,激素,内分泌
参考例句:
  • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters.激素植入物被用作生长辅助剂。
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body.这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
9 hormones hormones     
n. 荷尔蒙,激素 名词hormone的复数形式
参考例句:
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body. 这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
  • The adrenals produce a large per cent of a man's sex hormones. 肾上腺分泌人体的大部分性激素。
10 gene WgKxx     
n.遗传因子,基因
参考例句:
  • A single gene may have many effects.单一基因可能具有很多种效应。
  • The targeting of gene therapy has been paid close attention.其中基因治疗的靶向性是值得密切关注的问题之一。
11 breakdown cS0yx     
n.垮,衰竭;损坏,故障,倒塌
参考例句:
  • She suffered a nervous breakdown.她患神经衰弱。
  • The plane had a breakdown in the air,but it was fortunately removed by the ace pilot.飞机在空中发生了故障,但幸运的是被王牌驾驶员排除了。
12 psychiatry g0Jze     
n.精神病学,精神病疗法
参考例句:
  • The study appeared in the Amercian science Journal of Psychiatry.这个研究发表在美国精神病学的杂志上。
  • A physician is someone who specializes in psychiatry.精神病专家是专门从事精神病治疗的人。
13 psychology U0Wze     
n.心理,心理学,心理状态
参考例句:
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
14 consultant 2v0zp3     
n.顾问;会诊医师,专科医生
参考例句:
  • He is a consultant on law affairs to the mayor.他是市长的一个法律顾问。
  • Originally,Gar had agreed to come up as a consultant.原来,加尔只答应来充当我们的顾问。
15 addiction JyEzS     
n.上瘾入迷,嗜好
参考例句:
  • He stole money from his parents to feed his addiction.他从父母那儿偷钱以满足自己的嗜好。
  • Areas of drug dealing are hellholes of addiction,poverty and murder.贩卖毒品的地区往往是吸毒上瘾、贫困和发生谋杀的地方。
16 obese uvIya     
adj.过度肥胖的,肥大的
参考例句:
  • The old man is really obese,it can't be healthy.那位老人确实过于肥胖了,不能算是健康。
  • Being obese and lazy is dangerous to health.又胖又懒危害健康。
17 strictly GtNwe     
adv.严厉地,严格地;严密地
参考例句:
  • His doctor is dieting him strictly.他的医生严格规定他的饮食。
  • The guests were seated strictly in order of precedence.客人严格按照地位高低就座。
18 timing rgUzGC     
n.时间安排,时间选择
参考例句:
  • The timing of the meeting is not convenient.会议的时间安排不合适。
  • The timing of our statement is very opportune.我们发表声明选择的时机很恰当。
19 diabetes uPnzu     
n.糖尿病
参考例句:
  • In case of diabetes, physicians advise against the use of sugar.对于糖尿病患者,医生告诫他们不要吃糖。
  • Diabetes is caused by a fault in the insulin production of the body.糖尿病是由体內胰岛素分泌失调引起的。
20 fixed JsKzzj     
adj.固定的,不变的,准备好的;(计算机)固定的
参考例句:
  • Have you two fixed on a date for the wedding yet?你们俩选定婚期了吗?
  • Once the aim is fixed,we should not change it arbitrarily.目标一旦确定,我们就不应该随意改变。
21 expenditures 2af585403f5a51eeaa8f7b29110cc2ab     
n.花费( expenditure的名词复数 );使用;(尤指金钱的)支出额;(精力、时间、材料等的)耗费
参考例句:
  • We have overspent.We'll have to let up our expenditures next month. 我们已经超支了,下个月一定得节约开支。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The pension includes an allowance of fifty pounds for traffic expenditures. 年金中包括50镑交通费补贴。 来自《简明英汉词典》
22 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
23 pangs 90e966ce71191d0a90f6fec2265e2758     
突然的剧痛( pang的名词复数 ); 悲痛
参考例句:
  • She felt sudden pangs of regret. 她突然感到痛悔不已。
  • With touching pathos he described the pangs of hunger. 他以极具感伤力的笔触描述了饥饿的痛苦。
24 lesser UpxzJL     
adj.次要的,较小的;adv.较小地,较少地
参考例句:
  • Kept some of the lesser players out.不让那些次要的球员参加联赛。
  • She has also been affected,but to a lesser degree.她也受到波及,但程度较轻。
25 versus wi7wU     
prep.以…为对手,对;与…相比之下
参考例句:
  • The big match tonight is England versus Spain.今晚的大赛是英格兰对西班牙。
  • The most exciting game was Harvard versus Yale.最富紧张刺激的球赛是哈佛队对耶鲁队。
26 spikes jhXzrc     
n.穗( spike的名词复数 );跑鞋;(防滑)鞋钉;尖状物v.加烈酒于( spike的第三人称单数 );偷偷地给某人的饮料加入(更多)酒精( 或药物);把尖状物钉入;打乱某人的计划
参考例句:
  • a row of iron spikes on a wall 墙头的一排尖铁
  • There is a row of spikes on top of the prison wall to prevent the prisoners escaping. 监狱墙头装有一排尖钉,以防犯人逃跑。 来自《简明英汉词典》
27 genes 01914f8eac35d7e14afa065217edd8c0     
n.基因( gene的名词复数 )
参考例句:
  • You have good genes from your parents, so you should live a long time. 你从父母那儿获得优良的基因,所以能够活得很长。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Differences will help to reveal the functions of the genes. 它们间的差异将会帮助我们揭开基因多种功能。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 生物技术的世纪
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