文章来源: 文章作者: 发布时间:2007-04-07 02:24 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Passage Two (Europe’s Gypsies, Are They a Nation?)

The striving of countries in Central Europe to enter the European Union may offer an unprecedented1 chance to the continent’s Gypsies (or Roman) to be recognized as a nation, albeit2 one without a defined territory. And if they were to achieve that they might even seek some kind of formal place—at least a total population outnumbers that of many of the Union’s present and future countries. Some experts put the figure at 4m-plus; some proponents3 of Gypsy rights go as high as 15m.

Unlike Jews, Gypsies have had no known ancestral land to hark back to. Though their language is related to Hindi, their territorial4 origins are misty5. Romanian peasants held them to be born on the moon. Other Europeans (wrongly) thought them migrant Egyptians, hence the derivative6 Gypsy. Most probably they were itinerant7 metal workers and entertainers who drifted west from India in the 7th century.

However, since communism in Central Europe collapsed8 a decade ago, the notion of Romanestan as a landless nation founded on Gypsy culture has gained ground. The International Romany Union, which says it stands for 10m Gypsies in more than 30 countries, is fostering the idea of “self-rallying”. It is trying to promote a standard and written form of the language; it waves a Gypsy flag (green with a wheel) when it lobbies in such places as the United Bations; and in July it held a congress in Prague, The Czech capital. Where President Vaclav Havel said that Gypsies in his own country and elsewhere should have a better deal.

At the congress a Slovak-born lawyer, Emil Scuka, was elected president of the International Tomany Union. Later this month a group of elected Gypsy politicians, including members of parliament, mayors and local councilors from all over Europe (OSCE), to discuss how to persuade more Gypsies to get involved in politics.

The International Romany Union is probably the most representative of the outfits9 that speak for Gypsies, but that is not saying a lot. Of the several hundred delegates who gathered at its congress, few were democratically elected; oddly, none came from Hungary, whose Gypsies are perhaps the world’s best organized, with some 450 Gypsy bodies advising local councils there. The union did, however, announce its ambition to set up a parliament, but how it would actually be elected was left undecided.

So far, the European Commission is wary10 of encouraging Gypsies to present themselves as a nation. The might, it is feared, open a Pandora’s box already containing Basques, Corsicans and other awkward peoples. Besides, acknowledging Gypsies as a nation might backfire, just when several countries, particularly Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, are beginning to treat them better, in order to qualify for EU membership. “The EU’s whole premise11 is to overcome differences, not to highlight them,” says a nervous Eurocrat.

But the idea that the Gypsies should win some kind of special recognition as Europe’s largest continent wide minority, and one with a terrible history of persecution12, is catching13 on . Gypsies have suffered many pogroms over the centuries. In Romania, the country that still has the largest number of them (more than 1m), in the 19th century they were actually enslaved. Hitler tried to wipe them out, along with the Jews.

“Gypsies deserve some space within European structures,” says Jan Marinus Wiersma, a Dutchman in the European Parliament who suggests that one of the current commissioners14 should be responsible for Gypsy affairs. Some prominent Gypsies say they should be more directly represented, perhaps with a quota15 in the European Parliament. That, they argue, might give them a boost. There are moves afoot to help them to get money for, among other things, a Gypsy university.

One big snag is that Europe’s Gypsies are, in fact, extremely heterogeneous16. They belong to many different, and often antagonistic17, clans18 and tribes, with no common language or religion, Their self-proclaimed leaders have often proved quarrelsome and corrupt19. Still, says, Dimitrina Petrova, head of the European Roma Rights Center in Budapest, Gypsies’ shared experience of suffering entitles them to talk of one nation; their potential unity20, she says, stems from “being regarded as sub-human by most majorities in Europe.”

And they have begun to be a bit more pragmatic. In Slovakia and Bulgaria, for instance, Gypsy political parties are trying to form electoral blocks that could win seats in parliament. In Macedonia, a Gypsy party already has some—and even runs a municipality. Nicholas Gheorge, an expert on Gypsy affairs at the OSCE, reckons that, spread over Central Europe, there are now about 20 Gypsy MPS and mayors, 400-odd local councilors, and a growing number of businessmen and intellectuals.

That is far from saying that they have the people or the cash to forge a nation. But, with the Gypsy question on the EU’s agenda in Central Europe, they are making ground.


1.       The Best Title of this passage is

[A]. Gypsies Want to Form a Nation.         [B]. Are They a Nation.

[C]. EU Is Afraid of Their Growth.           [C]. They Are a Tribe

2.       Where are the most probable Gypsy territory origins?

[A]. Most probably they drifted west from India in the 7th century.

[B]. They are scattered21 everywhere in the world.

[C]. Probably, they stemmed from Central Europe.

[D]. They probably came from the International Romany Union.

3.       What does the International Romany lobby for?

[A]. It lobbies for a demand to be accepted by such international organizations as EU and UN.

[B]. It lobbies for a post in any international Romany Union.

[C]. It lobbies for the right as a nation.

[D]. It lobbies for a place in such international organizations as the EU or UN.

4.       Why is the Europe Commission wary of encouraging Gypsies to present themselves as a nation?

[A]. It may open a Pandora’s Box.

[B]. Encouragement may lead to some unexpected results.

[C]. It fears that the Basgnes, Corsicans and other nations seeking separation may raise the same demand.

[D]. Gyspsies’ demand may highlight the difference in the EU.

5.       The big problem lies in the fact that

[A]. Gypsies belong to different and antagonistic clans and tribes without a common language or religion.

[B]. Their leaders prove corrupt.

[C]. Their potential unity stems from “being regarded as sub-human”.

[D]. They are a bit more pragmatic.



1.       albeit                         尽管,虽然

2.       outnumber                     数字上超过

3.       ethnic                         少数民族的成员,种族集团的成员

4.       Hindi                         印地语

5.       misty                         模糊不清的,朦胧的

6.       derivative                      衍生的,派生的

7.       itinerant                       逻辑的

8.       Romanesten                    说吉普塞语的地方

Romanes                      吉普塞语

Stan                          地方

9.       outfit                         (口)组织,(协同工作)的集体

10.   local                          地方(市,镇,县)政务委员会

11.   wary                          谨慎的,机警的

12.   backfire                       产生出乎意料或事与愿违的结果

13.   highlight                       强调

14.   persecution                     迫害

15.   catch on                       了解,风行=to become popular

16.   pogrom                        大屠杀,集体迫害

17.   commissioner                   委员,调查团团员

18.   quota                          定量,配额,限额

19.   snag                          (尖利突出物,抽丝)潜在的困难

20.   heterogeneous                   由不同种类组成的

21.   antagonistic                     有效对抗性的,对抗性的

22.   clan                           氏族

23.   tribe                           部落

24.   pragmatic                       务实的,讲究实效的

25.   municipality                     城市,镇,区属政府,自治区

26.   Rom                           罗姆,即吉普塞人



1.  Central Europe        中欧,如本文提及捷克,匈牙利,罗马尼亚等。

2.  European Union       欧盟。

3.  the EUs institutions    欧洲机构,如:European Commission 欧盟委员会,European Council 欧盟理事会,European Parliament 欧洲会议,the Court of Justic 欧洲法院。4m=more than 4 million 四百多万。

4.        Unlike Jews, Gypsies have had no known ancestral land to hark back to.

[结构简析] hark back to =to mention again or remember an earlier subject, event, etc. 吉普塞不知其祖先来自何方,而犹太人在《圣经》中已阐明了他们的历史。

[参考译文] 吉普塞人和犹太人不同,他们没有可以回想起来的已知的祖居地。

5.        …the notion of Romanestan as a landless nation founded on Gypsy culture has gained ground.

[结构简析] gain ground (on) 接近。

[参考译文] 作为建立在吉普塞文化基础上的无疆地民族应该有一个说吉普塞语的地方。这种想法越来越为人接受。

6.  the International Romany Union         国际吉普塞人联盟。

7.  Vaclav Harel (1936--)      剧作家和人权运动成员,1990——1992为捷克斯洛伐克的总统,1993年后为捷克总统。

8.  a Slovak-born lawyer      斯洛伐克出生的律师,1992年捷克斯洛伐克

9.  Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe       简称OSCE,偶中安全合作条约组织,成立于1972

10.        nation  一词有民族和国家的含义。这里主要指:民族。因为作为国家应有疆土,但吉普塞人有要求成立国家的想法,欧盟是国家加入地方,不是民族加入。

11.        electoral block   选举集团

12.        The might, it is feared, open a Pandora’s box already containing Basques, Corsicans and other awkward peoples.

[结构简析] Pandora’s box 潘多拉盒子——喻种种麻烦事。潘多拉是主神宙斯命火神用黏土制成的第一个女性。宙斯命潘多拉带着一个盒子下凡。潘多拉私自打开盒子,于是里面的疾病,罪恶等各种祸害全部出来,散布于世。这里潘多拉盒子喻里面已有的各种麻烦的民族,吉普塞加入,更多了一份麻烦。

[参考译文] 人们担心,若让吉普塞人作为一个民族代表,就会打开了一个潘多拉盒子,里面已经装有要独立的西班牙的巴斯克人,意大利的科西嘉人和其他难以对付的民族。






1.        B. 他们是一个民族/国家吗?整篇文章环境这一点而写,文章一开始就提出中欧入欧盟的国家会给大陆吉普塞人一个机会,承认他们是一个民族——国家,虽然没有界定的领土(作为国家,应有领土)。吉普塞人的领袖人物也指出其人数超过欧盟中许多现在有的和将来要入盟的国家。他们至少要在欧盟中有一席之地。第二段提出,吉普塞和犹太人不同,他们没有可回归的祖居地。他们的语言属印欧语系。英国人认为他们来自埃及及移民。最可能的是七世纪时一些流浪的手工业工人和艺人从印度向西方流移。第三段涉及一种思想——以吉普塞文化为基础的无疆土的吉普塞民族应有个说话的地方越来越为人接受。国际吉普塞人联盟声称代表30多个国家的吉普塞人,做了几件事:展开自我联合,提出语言标准和书面形式,在联合国进行游说活动时挥动吉普塞国旗,在布鲁塞尔设立办事处,六月在捷克首都布拉格召开会议。第四段集中讲到会上选出了联盟主席。一群选出吉普塞的政治家——国会议员,市长,地方政务委员再次在布拉格开会,会议由欧洲安全合作条约组织召集,来讨论如何动员更多的吉普塞人参政。第五段涉及联盟雄心勃勃的宣布要建立国会,但如何实际操作还未落实。后面主要是外界对吉普塞的态度。第六段描述欧盟委员会在吉普塞作为最大的大陆少数民族,历史上遭到残酷的迫害,应赢得特别承认。19世纪他们横遭奴役,希特勒企图把它们和犹太人一起消灭。第八段讲了欧洲会议中有人提出吉普塞在欧洲机构中应有一席之地,还提议一个常务委员负责吉普塞事务。还有行动筹建建立一所吉普塞大学。后面两段讲的是困难,第九段点出。最后一段指出,现在说他们有人有钱可以组成(国家)为时还早,可是吉普塞是欧盟中日程表上的一个问题,他们日益接近解决。从内部,外部情况分析都说明吉普塞是一个组成国家的民族。全文都是环绕它是不是,该不该承认为民族/国家而写,所以B项他们是不是民族是最佳标题。

A. 吉普塞要想组成一个国家(民族)。这只是文章涉及到的部分内容,中欧国家想加入欧盟一事可能产生的结果。      C. 欧盟害怕它们成长。      D. 他们是一个部落。

2.        A. 最可能是在7世纪从印度流浪到西方。见第1题第二注释。

B. 他们分散在世界各地。        C. 可能他们源于中欧。      D. 他们可能来自国际吉普塞人联盟。

3.        D. 它们在这些国际组织,如欧盟,联合国中进行活动游说要取得一席之地。见第1题第一段,三段注释。

A. 它们游说活动欧盟和联合国接受他们的要求。太抽象。       B. 它们活动游说在国际机构取得职位。           C. 他们游说作为民族的权利。

4.        C. 它害怕巴斯克人,科西嘉人和其它要求分裂的民族会提出同样的要求。见难句译注11

A. 它可能会打开潘多拉盒子。此盒子在文章中只是比喻。     B. 鼓励可能会导致某些意想不到的结果。           D. 吉普塞的要求会加深欧盟分歧。     B,D两项不够明确。

5.        A. 吉普塞人属于不同的,而且常常是对抗的民族的部落,还没有共同的语言和宗教信仰。

B. 他们领袖很腐败。      C. 他们潜在的团结来自被人看作是低于人类(次等人)。    D. 他们有点太讲究实效, B,C, D 三项不是主要问题。主要问题是A. 项。


1 unprecedented 7gSyJ     
  • The air crash caused an unprecedented number of deaths.这次空难的死亡人数是空前的。
  • A flood of this sort is really unprecedented.这样大的洪水真是十年九不遇。
2 albeit axiz0     
  • Albeit fictional,she seemed to have resolved the problem.虽然是虚构的,但是在她看来好象是解决了问题。
  • Albeit he has failed twice,he is not discouraged.虽然失败了两次,但他并没有气馁。
3 proponents 984ded1baa85fedd6467626f41d14aff     
n.(某事业、理论等的)支持者,拥护者( proponent的名词复数 )
  • Reviewing courts were among the most active proponents of hybrid rulemaking procedures. 复审法院是最积极的混合型规则制定程序的建议者。 来自英汉非文学 - 行政法
  • Proponents of such opinions were arrested as 'traitors. ' 提倡这种主张的人马上作为“卖国贼”逮捕起来。 来自辞典例句
4 territorial LImz4     
  • The country is fighting to preserve its territorial integrity.该国在为保持领土的完整而进行斗争。
  • They were not allowed to fish in our territorial waters.不允许他们在我国领海捕鱼。
5 misty l6mzx     
  • He crossed over to the window to see if it was still misty.他走到窗户那儿,看看是不是还有雾霭。
  • The misty scene had a dreamy quality about it.雾景给人以梦幻般的感觉。
6 derivative iwXxI     
  • His paintings are really quite derivative.他的画实在没有创意。
  • Derivative works are far more complicated.派生作品更加复杂。
7 itinerant m3jyu     
  • He is starting itinerant performance all over the world.他正在世界各地巡回演出。
  • There is a general debate nowadays about the problem of itinerant workers.目前,针对流动工人的问题展开了普遍的争论。
8 collapsed cwWzSG     
  • Jack collapsed in agony on the floor. 杰克十分痛苦地瘫倒在地板上。
  • The roof collapsed under the weight of snow. 房顶在雪的重压下突然坍塌下来。
9 outfits ed01b85fb10ede2eb7d337e0ea2d0bb3     
n.全套装备( outfit的名词复数 );一套服装;集体;组织v.装备,配置设备,供给服装( outfit的第三人称单数 )
  • He jobbed out the contract to a number of small outfits. 他把承包工程分包给许多小单位。 来自辞典例句
  • Some cyclists carry repair outfits because they may have a puncture. 有些骑自行车的人带修理工具,因为他们车胎可能小孔。 来自辞典例句
10 wary JMEzk     
  • He is wary of telling secrets to others.他谨防向他人泄露秘密。
  • Paula frowned,suddenly wary.宝拉皱了皱眉头,突然警惕起来。
11 premise JtYyy     
  • Let me premise my argument with a bit of history.让我引述一些史实作为我立论的前提。
  • We can deduce a conclusion from the premise.我们可以从这个前提推出结论。
12 persecution PAnyA     
n. 迫害,烦扰
  • He had fled from France at the time of the persecution. 他在大迫害时期逃离了法国。
  • Their persecution only serves to arouse the opposition of the people. 他们的迫害只激起人民对他们的反抗。
13 catching cwVztY     
  • There are those who think eczema is catching.有人就是认为湿疹会传染。
  • Enthusiasm is very catching.热情非常富有感染力。
14 commissioners 304cc42c45d99acb49028bf8a344cda3     
n.专员( commissioner的名词复数 );长官;委员;政府部门的长官
  • The Commissioners of Inland Revenue control British national taxes. 国家税收委员管理英国全国的税收。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The SEC has five commissioners who are appointed by the president. 证券交易委员会有5名委员,是由总统任命的。 来自英汉非文学 - 政府文件
15 quota vSKxV     
  • A restricted import quota was set for meat products.肉类产品设定了进口配额。
  • He overfulfilled his production quota for two months running.他一连两个月超额完成生产指标。
16 heterogeneous rdixF     
  • There is a heterogeneous mass of papers in the teacher's office.老师的办公室里堆满了大批不同的论文。
  • America has a very heterogeneous population.美国人口是由不同种族组成的。
17 antagonistic pMPyn     
  • He is always antagonistic towards new ideas.他对新思想总是持反对态度。
  • They merely stirred in a nervous and wholly antagonistic way.他们只是神经质地,带着完全敌对情绪地骚动了一下。
18 clans 107c1b7606090bbd951aa9bdcf1d209e     
宗族( clan的名词复数 ); 氏族; 庞大的家族; 宗派
  • There are many clans in European countries. 欧洲国家有很多党派。
  • The women were the great power among the clans [gentes], as everywhere else. 妇女在克兰〈氏族〉里,乃至一般在任何地方,都有很大的势力。 来自英汉非文学 - 家庭、私有制和国家的起源
19 corrupt 4zTxn     
  • The newspaper alleged the mayor's corrupt practices.那家报纸断言市长有舞弊行为。
  • This judge is corrupt.这个法官贪污。
20 unity 4kQwT     
  • When we speak of unity,we do not mean unprincipled peace.所谓团结,并非一团和气。
  • We must strengthen our unity in the face of powerful enemies.大敌当前,我们必须加强团结。
21 scattered 7jgzKF     
  • Gathering up his scattered papers,he pushed them into his case.他把散乱的文件收拾起来,塞进文件夹里。