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20. Normal full-term babies are all born with certain instinctive1 reflexes that disappear by the age of two months. Because this three-month-old baby exhibits these reflexes, this baby is not a normal full-term baby.

  Which one of the following has a logical structure most like that of the argument above?

  (A) Because carbon dioxide turns limewater milky2 and this gas is oxygen, it will not turn limewater milky.

  (B) Because no ape can talk and Suzy is an ape, Suzy cannot talk.

  (C) Because humans are social animals and Henry is sociable3, Henry is normal.

  (D) Because opossums have abdominal4 pouches6 and this animal lacks any such pouch5, this animal is not an opossum.

  (E) Because some types of trees shed their leaves annually7 and this tree has not shed its leaves, it is not normal.

  21. Efficiency and redundancy are contradictory8 characteristics of linguistic9 systems: however, they can be used together to achieve usefulness and reliability10 in communication. If a spoken language is completely efficient, then every possible permutation of its basic language sounds can be an understandable word. However, if the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then it is not true that every possible permutation of a spoken language's basic language sounds can be an understandable word.

  If all of the statements above are true, which one of the following must also be true?

  (A) Efficiency causes a spoken language to be useful and redundancy causes it to be reliable.

  (B) Neither efficiency nor redundancy can be completely achieved in spoken language.

  (C) If a spoken language were completely redundant11, then it could not be useful.

  (D) If the human auditory system were a perfect receptor of sounds, then every permutation of language sounds would be an understandable word.

  (E) If the human auditory system is an imperfect receptor of sounds, then a spoken language cannot be completely efficient.

  22. All intelligent people are nearsighted. I am very nearsighted. So I must be a genius.

  Which one of the following exhibits both of the logical flaws exhibited in the argument above?

  (A) I must be stupid because all intelligent people are nearsighted and I have perfect eyesight.

  (B) All chickens have beaks13. This bird has a beak12. So this bird must be a chicken.

  (C) All pigs have four legs, but this spider has eight legs. So this spider must be twice as big as any pig.

  (D) John is extremely happy, so he must be extremely tall because all tall people are happy.

  (E) All geniuses are very nearsighted. I must be very nearsighted since I am a genius.

  23. An advertisements states:

  Like Danaxil, all headache pills can stop your headache. But when you are in pain, you want relief right away. Danaxil is for you-no headache pill stops pain more quickly.

  Evelyn and Jane are each suffering from a headache. Suppose Evelyn takes Danaxil and Jane takes its leading competitor.

  Which one of the following can be properly concluded from the claims in the advertisement?

  (A) Evelyn's headache pain will be relieved, but Jane's will not.

  (B) Evelyn's headache pain will be relieved more quickly than Jane's.

  (C) Evelyn's headache will be relieved at least as quickly as Jane's.

  (D) Jane's headache pain will be relieved at the same time as is Evelyn's.

  (E) Jane will be taking Danaxil for relief from headache pain.

  Questions 24-25

  In opposing the 1970 Clean Air Act, the United States automobile14 industry argued that meeting the act's standards for automobile emissions16 was neither economically feasible nor environmentally necessary. However, the catalytic converter, invented in 1967, enabled automakers to meet the 1970 standards efficiently17. Currently, automaker are lobbying against the government's attempt to pass legislation that would tighten18 restrictions19 on automobile emissions. The automakers contend that these new restrictions would be overly expensive and unnecessary to efforts to curb20 air pollution. Clearly, the automobile industry's position should not be heeded21.

  24. Which one of the following most accurately22 expresses the method used to counter the automakers' current position?

  (A) The automakers' premises23 are shown to lead to a contradiction.

  (B) Facts are mentioned that show that the automakers are relying on false information.

  (C) A flaw is pointed24 out in the reasoning used by the automakers to reach their conclusion.

  (D) A comparison is drawn25 between the automakers' current position and a position they held in the past.

  (E) Evidence is provided that the new emissions legislation is both economically feasible and environmentally necessary.

  25. Which one of the following, if true, lends the most support to the automakers' current position?

  (A) The more stringent26 the legislation restricting emissions becomes, the more difficult it becomes for automakers to provide the required technology economically.

  (B) Emissions-restriction technology can often be engineered so as to avoid reducing the efficiency with which an automobile uses fuel.

  (C) Not every new piece of legislation restricting emissions requires new automotive technology in order for automakers to comply with it.

  (D) The more automobiles27 there are on the road, the more stringent emission15 restrictions must be to prevent increased overall air pollution.

  (E) Unless forced to do so by the government, automakers rarely make changes in automotive technology that is not related to profitability


1 instinctive c6jxT     
  • He tried to conceal his instinctive revulsion at the idea.他试图饰盖自己对这一想法本能的厌恶。
  • Animals have an instinctive fear of fire.动物本能地怕火。
2 milky JD0xg     
  • Alexander always has milky coffee at lunchtime.亚历山大总是在午餐时喝掺奶的咖啡。
  • I like a hot milky drink at bedtime.我喜欢睡前喝杯热奶饮料。
3 sociable hw3wu     
  • Roger is a very sociable person.罗杰是个非常好交际的人。
  • Some children have more sociable personalities than others.有些孩子比其他孩子更善于交际。
4 abdominal VIUya     
  • The abdominal aorta is normally smaller than the thoracic aorta.腹主动脉一般比胸主动脉小。
  • Abdominal tissues sometimes adhere after an operation.手术之后腹部有时会出现粘连。
5 pouch Oi1y1     
  • He was going to make a tobacco pouch out of them. 他要用它们缝制一个烟草袋。
  • The old man is always carrying a tobacco pouch with him.这老汉总是随身带着烟袋。
6 pouches 952990a5cdea03f7970c486d570c7d8e     
n.(放在衣袋里或连在腰带上的)小袋( pouch的名词复数 );(袋鼠等的)育儿袋;邮袋;(某些动物贮存食物的)颊袋
  • Pouches are a peculiarity of marsupials. 腹袋是有袋动物的特色。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Under my eyes the pouches were heavy. 我眼睛下的眼袋很深。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 annually VzYzNO     
  • Many migratory birds visit this lake annually.许多候鸟每年到这个湖上作短期逗留。
  • They celebrate their wedding anniversary annually.他们每年庆祝一番结婚纪念日。
8 contradictory VpazV     
  • The argument is internally contradictory.论据本身自相矛盾。
  • What he said was self-contradictory.他讲话前后不符。
9 linguistic k0zxn     
  • She is pursuing her linguistic researches.她在从事语言学的研究。
  • The ability to write is a supreme test of linguistic competence.写作能力是对语言能力的最高形式的测试。
10 reliability QVexf     
  • We mustn't presume too much upon the reliability of such sources.我们不应过分指望这类消息来源的可靠性。
  • I can assure you of the reliability of the information.我向你保证这消息可靠。
11 redundant Tt2yO     
  • There are too many redundant words in this book.这本书里多余的词太多。
  • Nearly all the redundant worker have been absorbed into other departments.几乎所有冗员,都已调往其他部门任职。
12 beak 8y1zGA     
  • The bird had a worm in its beak.鸟儿嘴里叼着一条虫。
  • This bird employs its beak as a weapon.这种鸟用嘴作武器。
13 beaks 66bf69cd5b0e1dfb0c97c1245fc4fbab     
n.鸟嘴( beak的名词复数 );鹰钩嘴;尖鼻子;掌权者
  • Baby cockatoos will have black eyes and soft, almost flexible beaks. 雏鸟凤头鹦鹉黑色的眼睛是柔和的,嘴几乎是灵活的。 来自互联网
  • Squid beaks are often found in the stomachs of sperm whales. 经常能在抹香鲸的胃里发现鱿鱼的嘴。 来自互联网
14 automobile rP1yv     
  • He is repairing the brake lever of an automobile.他正在修理汽车的刹车杆。
  • The automobile slowed down to go around the curves in the road.汽车在路上转弯时放慢了速度。
15 emission vjnz4     
  • Rigorous measures will be taken to reduce the total pollutant emission.采取严格有力措施,降低污染物排放总量。
  • Finally,the way to effectively control particulate emission is pointed out.最后,指出有效降低颗粒排放的方向。
16 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名词复数 ); 散发物(尤指气体)
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多数科学家都相信气候变化与排放的含碳气体有关。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危险的辐射物从钚放散出来。
17 efficiently ZuTzXQ     
  • The worker oils the machine to operate it more efficiently.工人给机器上油以使机器运转更有效。
  • Local authorities have to learn to allocate resources efficiently.地方政府必须学会有效地分配资源。
18 tighten 9oYwI     
  • Turn the screw to the right to tighten it.向右转动螺钉把它拧紧。
  • Some countries tighten monetary policy to avoid inflation.一些国家实行紧缩银根的货币政策,以避免通货膨胀。
19 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
20 curb LmRyy     
  • I could not curb my anger.我按捺不住我的愤怒。
  • You must curb your daughter when you are in church.你在教堂时必须管住你的女儿。
21 heeded 718cd60e0e96997caf544d951e35597a     
v.听某人的劝告,听从( heed的过去式和过去分词 );变平,使(某物)变平( flatten的过去式和过去分词 )
  • She countered that her advice had not been heeded. 她反驳说她的建议未被重视。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • I heeded my doctor's advice and stopped smoking. 我听从医生的劝告,把烟戒了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
22 accurately oJHyf     
  • It is hard to hit the ball accurately.准确地击中球很难。
  • Now scientists can forecast the weather accurately.现在科学家们能准确地预报天气。
23 premises 6l1zWN     
  • According to the rules,no alcohol can be consumed on the premises.按照规定,场内不准饮酒。
  • All repairs are done on the premises and not put out.全部修缮都在家里进行,不用送到外面去做。
24 pointed Il8zB4     
  • He gave me a very sharp pointed pencil.他给我一支削得非常尖的铅笔。
  • She wished to show Mrs.John Dashwood by this pointed invitation to her brother.她想通过对达茨伍德夫人提出直截了当的邀请向她的哥哥表示出来。
25 drawn MuXzIi     
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
26 stringent gq4yz     
  • Financiers are calling for a relaxation of these stringent measures.金融家呼吁对这些严厉的措施予以放宽。
  • Some of the conditions in the contract are too stringent.合同中有几项条件太苛刻。
27 automobiles 760a1b7b6ea4a07c12e5f64cc766962b     
n.汽车( automobile的名词复数 )
  • When automobiles become popular,the use of the horse and buggy passed away. 汽车普及后,就不再使用马和马车了。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Automobiles speed in an endless stream along the boulevard. 宽阔的林荫道上,汽车川流不息。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》