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21. On the basis of the premises1 advanced, which one of the following principles, if established, would provide the most justification2 for the concluding recommendation?

  (A) No segment of a community should be permitted to engage in a practice that has been shown to result in a disproportionate share of police service being devoted3 to that segment of the community.

  (B) When public resources are in short supply, any individual who wants special services from public agencies such as police and fire departments should be required to pay for those services if he or she can afford to do so.

  (C) Police departments are not justified4 in improving service to one segment of the community at the expense of other segments of the community unless doing so reduces the crime level throughout the entire area served.

  (D) Anyone who directly benefits from a service provided by public employees should be required to reimburse5 the general public fund an amount equivalent to the average cost providing that service.

  (E) If receipt of a service results in the waste of scarce public resources and people with other legitimate6 needs are disadvantaged in consequence, the recipient7 of that service should compensate8 the public for the resources wasted.

  22. When butterfat was considered nutritious9 and healthful, a law was enacted10 requiring that manufacturers use the term “imitation butter” to indicate butter whose butterfat content had been diminished through the addition of water. Today, it is known that the high cholesterol11 content of butterfat makes it harmful to human health. Since the public should be encouraged to eat foods with lower rather than higher butterfat content and since the term “imitation” with its connotations of falsity deters12 many people from purchasing products so designated, manufactures who wish to give reduced-butterfat butter the more appealing name of “lite butter” should be allowed to do so.

  Which one of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

  (A) The manufactures who prefer to use the word “lite” instead of “imitation” are motivated principally by the financial interest of their stock holders13.

  (B) The manufacturers who wish to call their product “lite butter” plan to change the composition of the product so that it contains more water than it now does.

  (C) Some individuals who need to reduce their intake14 of cholesterol are not deterred15 from using the reduced-butterfat product by the negative connotations of the term “imitation.”

  (D) Cholesterol is only one of many factors that contribute to the types of health problems with which the consumption of excessive amounts of cholesterol is often associated.

  (E) Most people deterred from eating “imitation butter” because of its name choose alternatives with a lower butterfat content than this product has.

  23. Farm animals have certain behavioral tendencies that result from the evolutionary16 history of these species. By imposing17 on these animals a type of organization that conflicts with their behavioral tendencies, current farm-management practices cause the animals more pain and distress18 than do practices that more closely conform to the animals' behavioral tendencies. Because the animals tend to resist this type of organization, current practices can also be less efficient than those other farm-management practices.

  If the statements above are true, which one of the following can be properly inferred from them?

  (A) Some of the behavioral tendencies of farm animals can be altered by efficient farm-management practices.

  (B) In order to implement19 efficient farm-management practices, it is necessary to be familiar with the evolutionary history of farm animals.

  (C) In order to create farm-management practices that cause less pain and distress to farm animals, a significant loss of efficiency will be required.

  (D) Farm-management practices that cause the least amount pf pain and distress to farm animals are also the most efficient management practices.

  (E) Some changes in farm-management practices that lessen20 the pain and distress experienced by farm animals can result in gains in efficiency.

  24. It now seems clear that the significant role initially21 predicted for personal computers in the classroom has not become fact. One need only look to the dramatic decline in sales of computers for classroom use in the past year for proof that the fad22 has passed.

  Which one of the following arguments contains flawed reasoning parallel to that in the argument above?

  (A) Clearly government legislation mandating23 the reduction of automobile24 emissions25 has been at least partially26 successful, as is demonstrated by the fact that the air of the 20 largest cities now contains smaller amounts of the major pollutants27 mentioned in the legislation than it did before the legislation was passed.

  (B) Mechanical translation from one language into another, not merely in narrow contexts such as airline reservations but generally, is clearly an idea whose time has come. Since experts have be4en working on the problem for 40 years, it is now time for the accumulated expertise28 to achieve a breakthrough.

  (C) Sales of computers for home use will never reach the levels optimistically projected by manufacturers. The reason is that home use was envisioned as encompassing29 tasks, such as menu planning and checkbook reconciliation30, that most homemakers perform in much simpler ways than using a computer would require.

  (D) It is apparent that consumers have tired of microwave ovens as quickly as they initially came to accept this recent invention. In contrast to several years of increasing sales following the introduction of microwave ovens, sales of microwave ovens flattened31 last year indicating that consumers have found relatively32 little use for these devices.

  (E) Creating incentives33 for a particular kind of investment inevitably34 engenders35 boom-and-bust cycles. The evidence is in the recent decline in the value of commercial real estate, which shows that, although the government can encourage people to put up buildings, it cannot guarantee that those buildings will be fully36 rented or sold.

  25. Scientists attempting to replicate37 certain controversial results reported by a group of experienced researchers failed to get the same results as those reported. The conclusion drawn38 from this by the scientists who conducted the replication experiments was that the originally reported results had been due to faulty measurements.

  The argument of the scientists who conducted the replication experiments assumes that

  (A) the original experiments had not been described in sufficient detail to make an exact replication possible

  (B) the fact that originally reported results aroused controversy made it highly likely that they were in error

  (C) the theoretical principles called into question by the originally reported results were themselves based on weak evidence

  (D) the replication experiments were not so likely as the original experiments to be marred by faulty measurements

  (E) the researchers who originally reported the controversial results had themselves observed those results only once


1 premises 6l1zWN     
  • According to the rules,no alcohol can be consumed on the premises.按照规定,场内不准饮酒。
  • All repairs are done on the premises and not put out.全部修缮都在家里进行,不用送到外面去做。
2 justification x32xQ     
  • There's no justification for dividing the company into smaller units. 没有理由把公司划分成小单位。
  • In the young there is a justification for this feeling. 在年轻人中有这种感觉是有理由的。
3 devoted xu9zka     
  • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他为祖国的教育事业贡献了一生。
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我们对这个题目进行了长时间的充分讨论。
4 justified 7pSzrk     
  • She felt fully justified in asking for her money back. 她认为有充分的理由要求退款。
  • The prisoner has certainly justified his claims by his actions. 那个囚犯确实已用自己的行动表明他的要求是正当的。
5 reimburse 5Vixt     
  • We'll reimburse you for your travelling expenses.我们将付还你旅费。
  • The funds are supposed to reimburse policyholders in the event of insurer failure.这项基金将在保险公司不能偿付的情况下对投保人进行赔付。
6 legitimate L9ZzJ     
  • Sickness is a legitimate reason for asking for leave.生病是请假的一个正当的理由。
  • That's a perfectly legitimate fear.怀有这种恐惧完全在情理之中。
7 recipient QA8zF     
a.接受的,感受性强的 n.接受者,感受者,容器
  • Please check that you have a valid email certificate for each recipient. 请检查是否对每个接收者都有有效的电子邮件证书。
  • Colombia is the biggest U . S aid recipient in Latin America. 哥伦比亚是美国在拉丁美洲最大的援助对象。
8 compensate AXky7     
vt.补偿,赔偿;酬报 vi.弥补;补偿;抵消
  • She used her good looks to compensate her lack of intelligence. 她利用她漂亮的外表来弥补智力的不足。
  • Nothing can compensate for the loss of one's health. 一个人失去了键康是不可弥补的。
9 nutritious xHzxO     
  • Fresh vegetables are very nutritious.新鲜蔬菜富于营养。
  • Hummingbirds have discovered that nectar and pollen are very nutritious.蜂鸟发现花蜜和花粉是很有营养的。
10 enacted b0a10ad8fca50ba4217bccb35bc0f2a1     
制定(法律),通过(法案)( enact的过去式和过去分词 )
  • legislation enacted by parliament 由议会通过的法律
  • Outside in the little lobby another scene was begin enacted. 外面的小休息室里又是另一番景象。 来自英汉文学 - 嘉莉妹妹
11 cholesterol qrzzV     
  • There is cholesterol in the cell of body.人体细胞里有胆固醇。
  • They are determining the serum-protein and cholesterol levels.他们正在测定血清蛋白和胆固醇的浓度。
12 deters fa9038e0dc6ca5820b8bf591f2a1f604     
v.阻止,制止( deter的第三人称单数 )
  • The filth here deters all but the invited guest. 这里污秽不堪,除非有事,外人是裹足不前的。 来自辞典例句
  • Many people believe that capital punishment deters crime. 很多人相信极刑能阻止犯罪。 来自互联网
13 holders 79c0e3bbb1170e3018817c5f45ebf33f     
支持物( holder的名词复数 ); 持有者; (支票等)持有人; 支托(或握持)…之物
  • Slaves were mercilessly ground down by slave holders. 奴隶受奴隶主的残酷压迫。
  • It is recognition of compassion's part that leads the up-holders of capital punishment to accuse the abolitionists of sentimentality in being more sorry for the murderer than for his victim. 正是对怜悯的作用有了认识,才使得死刑的提倡者指控主张废除死刑的人感情用事,同情谋杀犯胜过同情受害者。
14 intake 44cyQ     
  • Reduce your salt intake.减少盐的摄入量。
  • There was a horrified intake of breath from every child.所有的孩子都害怕地倒抽了一口凉气。
15 deterred 6509d0c471f59ae1f99439f51e8ea52d     
v.阻止,制止( deter的过去式和过去分词 )
  • I told him I wasn't interested, but he wasn't deterred. 我已告诉他我不感兴趣,可他却不罢休。
  • Jeremy was not deterred by this criticism. 杰里米没有因这一批评而却步。 来自辞典例句
16 evolutionary Ctqz7m     
  • Life has its own evolutionary process.生命有其自身的进化过程。
  • These are fascinating questions to be resolved by the evolutionary studies of plants.这些十分吸引人的问题将在研究植物进化过程中得以解决。
17 imposing 8q9zcB     
  • The fortress is an imposing building.这座城堡是一座宏伟的建筑。
  • He has lost his imposing appearance.他已失去堂堂仪表。
18 distress 3llzX     
  • Nothing could alleviate his distress.什么都不能减轻他的痛苦。
  • Please don't distress yourself.请你不要忧愁了。
19 implement WcdzG     
  • Don't undertake a project unless you can implement it.不要承担一项计划,除非你能完成这项计划。
  • The best implement for digging a garden is a spade.在花园里挖土的最好工具是铁锹。
20 lessen 01gx4     
  • Regular exercise can help to lessen the pain.经常运动有助于减轻痛感。
  • They've made great effort to lessen the noise of planes.他们尽力减小飞机的噪音。
21 initially 273xZ     
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首先遭到美国的反对。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
22 fad phyzL;一时流行的狂热;一时的爱好
  • His interest in photography is only a passing fad.他对摄影的兴趣只是一时的爱好罢了。
  • A hot business opportunity is based on a long-term trend not a short-lived fad.一个热门的商机指的是长期的趋势而非一时的流行。
23 mandating c62e9d854cbfb789e6edc0c8d21324f7     
  • Current requirements mandating that committees keep minutes are too general. 目前对委员会要保持详细记录的指令性要求,还是太过一般化了。
  • Mandating that workers who quit without permission forfeit a month's wages. 规定工人私自离岗将受到罚没一个月工资的处罚。
24 automobile rP1yv     
  • He is repairing the brake lever of an automobile.他正在修理汽车的刹车杆。
  • The automobile slowed down to go around the curves in the road.汽车在路上转弯时放慢了速度。
25 emissions 1a87f8769eb755734e056efecb5e2da9     
排放物( emission的名词复数 ); 散发物(尤指气体)
  • Most scientists accept that climate change is linked to carbon emissions. 大多数科学家都相信气候变化与排放的含碳气体有关。
  • Dangerous emissions radiate from plutonium. 危险的辐射物从钚放散出来。
26 partially yL7xm     
  • The door was partially concealed by the drapes.门有一部分被门帘遮住了。
  • The police managed to restore calm and the curfew was partially lifted.警方设法恢复了平静,宵禁部分解除。
27 pollutants 694861490fe64672170a0da250a277c7     
污染物质(尤指工业废物)( pollutant的名词复数 )
  • Pollutants are constantly being released into the atmosphere. 污染物质正在不断地被排放到大气中去。
  • The 1987 Amendments limit 301(g) discharges to a few well-studied nonconventional pollutants. 1987年的修正案把第301条(g)的普通排放限制施加在一些认真研究过的几种非常规污染物上。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
28 expertise fmTx0     
  • We were amazed at his expertise on the ski slopes.他斜坡滑雪的技能使我们赞叹不已。
  • You really have the technical expertise in a new breakthrough.让你真正在专业技术上有一个全新的突破。
29 encompassing d3e1478f9dbf972fd2599732510b1379     
v.围绕( encompass的现在分词 );包围;包含;包括
  • Being too large and all-encompassing is a common defect among state-owned enterprises. 过分追求大而全,是国企的一大通病。 来自互联网
  • Our services are: all-encompassing, love justice and high quality. 我们的服务目标是:全方位、真情义、高质量。 来自互联网
30 reconciliation DUhxh     
  • He was taken up with the reconciliation of husband and wife.他忙于做夫妻间的调解工作。
  • Their handshake appeared to be a gesture of reconciliation.他们的握手似乎是和解的表示。
31 flattened 1d5d9fedd9ab44a19d9f30a0b81f79a8     
  • She flattened her nose and lips against the window. 她把鼻子和嘴唇紧贴着窗户。
  • I flattened myself against the wall to let them pass. 我身体紧靠着墙让他们通过。
32 relatively bkqzS3     
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
33 incentives 884481806a10ef3017726acf079e8fa7     
激励某人做某事的事物( incentive的名词复数 ); 刺激; 诱因; 动机
  • tax incentives to encourage savings 鼓励储蓄的税收措施
  • Furthermore, subsidies provide incentives only for investments in equipment. 更有甚者,提供津贴仅是为鼓励增添设备的投资。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
34 inevitably x7axc     
  • In the way you go on,you are inevitably coming apart.照你们这样下去,毫无疑问是会散伙的。
  • Technological changes will inevitably lead to unemployment.技术变革必然会导致失业。
35 engenders b377f73dea8df557b6f4fba57541c7c8     
v.产生(某形势或状况),造成,引起( engender的第三人称单数 )
  • Sympathy often engenders love. 同情常常产生爱情。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Some people believe poverty engenders crime. 有人认为贫困生罪恶。 来自辞典例句
36 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
37 replicate PVAxN     
  • The DNA of chromatin must replicate before cell division.染色质DNA在细胞分裂之前必须复制。
  • It is also easy to replicate,as the next subsection explains.就像下一个小节详细说明的那样,它还可以被轻易的复制。
38 drawn MuXzIi     
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。