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Passage 35

  It can be argued that much consumer dissatisfaction with marketing1 strategies arises from an inability to aim advertising2 at only the likely buyers of a given product. There are three groups of consumers who are affected3(5) by the marketing process. First, there is the market segment-people who need the commodity in question. Second, there is the program target-people in the market segment with the “best fit” characteristics for a specific product. Lots of people may need trousers, but(10) only a few qualify as likely buyers of very expensive designer trousers. Finally, there is the program audience―all people who are actually exposed to the marketing program without regard to whether they need or want the product.
  (15) These three groups are rarely identical. An exception occurs occasionally in cases where customers for a particular industrial product may be few and easily iden- tifiable. Such customers, all sharing a particular need, are likely to form a meaningful target, for example, all(20) companies with a particular application of the product in question, such as high-speed fillers of bottles at brew-eries. In such circumstances, direct selling (marketing that  reaches only the program target) is likely to be economically justified4, and highly specialized5 trade(25) media exist to expose members of the program target-and only members of the program target-to the marketing program.
  Most consumer-goods markets are significantly different. Typically, there are many rather than few(30) potential customers. Each represents a relatively6 small percentage of potential sales. Rarely do members of a particular market segment group themselves neatly7 into a meaningful program target. There are substantial differences among consumers with similar demographic(35) characteristics. Even with all the past decade‘s advances in information technology, direct selling of consumer goods is rare, and mass marketing-a marketing approach that aims at a wide audience-remains the only economically feasible mode. Unfortunately, there(40) are few media that allow the marketer to direct a marketing program exclusively to the program target. Inevitably,people get exposed to a great deal of marketing for products in which they have no interest and so they become annoyed.

  1. The passage suggests which of the following about highly specialized trade media?
   (A) They should be used only when direct selling is not economically feasible.
   (B) They can be used to exclude from the program audience people who are not part of the program target.
   (C) They are used only for very expensive products.
   (D) They are rarely used in the implementation8 of marketing programs for industrial products.
   (E) They are used only when direct selling has not reached the appropriate market segment.

  2. According to the passage, most consumer-goods markets share which of the following characteristics?
   Ⅰ. Customers who differ significantly from each other
   Ⅱ. Large numbers of potential customers
   Ⅲ. Customers who each represent a small percentage of potential sales
   (A) Ⅰ only
   (B) Ⅱ only
   (C) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only
   (D) Ⅱ and Ⅲ only
   (E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ

  3. The passage suggests which of the following about direct selling?
   (A) It is used in the marketing of most industrial products.
   (B) It is often used in cases where there is a large program target.
   (C) It is not economically feasible for most marketing programs.
   (D) It is used only for products for which there are many potential customers.
   (E) It is less successful at directing a marketing program to the target audience than are other marketing approaches.

  4. The author mentions “trousers” (lines 9 and 11) most likely in order to
   (A) make a comparison between the program target and the program audience
   (B) emphasize the similarities between the market segment and the program target
   (C) provide an example of the way three groups of consumers are affected by a marketing program
   (D) clarify the distinction between the market segment and the program target
   (E) introduce the concept of the program audience

  5. Which of the following best exemplifies the situation described in the last two sentences of the passage?
   (A) A product suitable for women age 21-30 is marketed at meetings attended only by potential customers.
   (B) A company develops a new product and must develop an advertising campaign to create a market for it.
   (C) An idea for a specialized product remainsunexplored because media exposure of the productto its few potential customers would be tooexpensive.
   (D) A new product is developed and marketers collect demographic data on potential consumers before developing a specific advertising campaign.
   (E) A product suitable for men age 60 and over is advertised in a magazine read by adults of all ages.

  6. The passage suggests that which of the following is true about the marketing of industrial products like those discussed in the third paragraph?
   (A) The market segment and program target are identical.
   (B) Mass marketing is the only feasible way of advertising such products.
   (C) The marketing program cannot be directed specifically to the program target.
   (D) More customers would be needed to justify9 the expense of direct selling.
   (E) The program audience would necessarily be made up of potential customers, regardless of the marketing approach that was used.

  7. The passage supports which of the following statements about demographic characteristics and marketing?
   (A) Demographic research is of no use in determining how successful a product will be with a particular group of consumers.
   (B) A program audience is usually composed of people with similar demographic characteristics.
   (C) Psychological factors are more important than demographic factors in defining a market segments.
   (D) Consumers with similar demographic characteristics do not necessarily form a meaningful program target.
   (E) Collecting demographic data is the first step that marketers take in designing a marketing program.

  8. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following is true for most consumer-goods markets?
   (A) The program audience is smaller than the market segment.
   (B) The program audience and the market segment are usually identical.
   (C) The market segment and the program target are usually identical.
   (D) The program target is larger than the market segment.
   (E) The program target and the program audience are not usually identical.


1 marketing Boez7e     
  • They are developing marketing network.他们正在发展销售网络。
  • He often goes marketing.他经常去市场做生意。
2 advertising 1zjzi3     
n.广告业;广告活动 a.广告的;广告业务的
  • Can you give me any advice on getting into advertising? 你能指点我如何涉足广告业吗?
  • The advertising campaign is aimed primarily at young people. 这个广告宣传运动主要是针对年轻人的。
3 affected TzUzg0     
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
4 justified 7pSzrk     
  • She felt fully justified in asking for her money back. 她认为有充分的理由要求退款。
  • The prisoner has certainly justified his claims by his actions. 那个囚犯确实已用自己的行动表明他的要求是正当的。
5 specialized Chuzwe     
  • There are many specialized agencies in the United Nations.联合国有许多专门机构。
  • These tools are very specialized.这些是专用工具。
6 relatively bkqzS3     
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
7 neatly ynZzBp     
  • Sailors know how to wind up a long rope neatly.水手们知道怎样把一条大绳利落地缠好。
  • The child's dress is neatly gathered at the neck.那孩子的衣服在领口处打着整齐的皱褶。
8 implementation 2awxV     
  • Implementation of the program is now well underway.这一项目的实施现在行情看好。
9 justify j3DxR     
  • He tried to justify his absence with lame excuses.他想用站不住脚的借口为自己的缺席辩解。
  • Can you justify your rude behavior to me?你能向我证明你的粗野行为是有道理的吗?