文章来源: 文章作者: 发布时间:2007-05-15 08:38 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

In Forces of Production, David Noble examines the transformation1 of the machine-tool industry as the industry moved from reliance on skilled artisans to automation. Noble writes from a Marxist perspective, and his central (5) argument is that management, in its decisions to automate2, conspired3 against labor4: the power that the skilled machin- ists wielded5 in the industry was intolerable to management.

  Noble fails to substantiate6 this claim, although his argu- ment is impressive when he applies the Marxist concept of (10) "de-skilling"-the use of technology to replace skilled labor-to the automation of the machine-tool industry. In automating7, the industry moved to computer-based, digi- talized "numerical-control" (N/C) technology, rather than to artisan-generated "record-playback" (R/P) technology.

  (15) Although both systems reduced reliance on skilled labor, Noble clearly prefers R/P, with its inherent acknowledg- ment of workers' skills: unlike N/C, its programs were produced not by engineers at their computers, but by skilled machinists, who recorded their own movements to (20) "teach" machines to duplicate those movements. However, Noble's only evidence of conspiracy8 is that, although the two approaches were roughly equal in technical merit, management chose N/C. From this he concludes that auto- mation is undertaken not because efficiency demands it or (25) scientific advances allow it, but because it is a tool in the ceaseless war of capitalists against labor.

  1. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

  (A) reexamining a political position and defending its validity

  (B) examining a management decision and defending its necessity

  (C) analyzing9 a scholarly study and pointing out a central weakness

  (D) explaining a trend in automation and warning about its dangers
      (E) chronicling the history of an industry and criticizing its development

  2. According to information in the passage, the term "de- skilling" refers to the

  (A) loss of skills to industry when skilled workers are replaced by unskilled laborers10

  (B) substitution of mechanized processes for labor formerly11 performed by skilled workers

  (C) labor theory that automation is technologically12 comparable to skilled labor

  (D) process by which skilled machinists "teach" machines to perform certain tasks

  (E) exclusion13 of skilled workers from participation14 in the development of automated15 technology

  3. Which of the following best characterizes the function of the second paragraph of the passage?

  (A) It develops a topic introduced in the first paragraph.

  (B) It provides evidence to refute a claim presented in the first paragraph.

  (C) It gives examples of a phenomenon mentioned in the first paragraph.

  (D) It presents a generalization16 about examples given in the first paragraph.

  (E) It suggests two possible solutions to a problem presented in the first paragraph

4. The passage suggests which of the following about N automation in the machine-tool industry?

  (A) It displaced fewer skilled workers than R/P automation did.

  (B) It could have been implemented17 either by experienced machinists or by computer engineers.

  (C) It was designed without the active involvement skilled machinists.

  (D) It was more difficult to design than R/P automation was.

  (E) It was technically18 superior to R/P automation.

  5. Which of the following phrases most clearly reveals the attitude of the author of the passage toward Noble's central argument?

  (A) "conspired against" (line 6)

  (B) "intolerable to management" (line 7)

  (C) "impressive when he applies the Marxist concept" (line 9)

  (D) "clearly prefers" (line 16)

  (E) "only evidence of conspiracy" (line 21)

  6. The author of the passage commends Noble's book for which of the following?

  (A) Concentrating on skilled as opposed to unskilled workers in its discussion of the machine-tool industry

  (B) Offering a generalization about the motives19 behind the machine-tool industry's decision to automate

  (C) Making an essential distinction between two kinds of technology employed in the machine-tool industry

  (D) Calling into question the notion that managers conspired against labor in the automation of the machine-tool industry

  (E) Applying the concept of de-skilling to the machine- tool industry

  7. Which of the following best characterizes Forces of Production as it is described in the passage?

  (A) A comparison of two interpretations of how a particular industry evolved

  (B) An examination of the origin of a particular concept            in industrial economics

  (C) A study that points out the weakness of a particular interpretation of an industrial phenomenon

  (D) A history of a particular industry from an ideological point of view

  (E) An attempt to relate an industrial phenomenon in one industry to a similar phenomenon in another industry


1 transformation SnFwO     
  • Going to college brought about a dramatic transformation in her outlook.上大学使她的观念发生了巨大的变化。
  • He was struggling to make the transformation from single man to responsible husband.他正在努力使自己由单身汉变为可靠的丈夫。
2 automate oPLyy     
  • Many banks have begun to automate.许多银行已开始采用自动化技术。
  • To automate the control process of the lathes has become very easy today.使机床的控制过程自动化现已变得很容易了。
3 conspired 6d377e365eb0261deeef136f58f35e27     
密谋( conspire的过去式和过去分词 ); 搞阴谋; (事件等)巧合; 共同导致
  • They conspired to bring about the meeting of the two people. 他们共同促成了两人的会面。
  • Bad weather and car trouble conspired to ruin our vacation. 恶劣的气候连同汽车故障断送了我们的假日。
4 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
5 wielded d9bac000554dcceda2561eb3687290fc     
手持着使用(武器、工具等)( wield的过去式和过去分词 ); 具有; 运用(权力); 施加(影响)
  • The bad eggs wielded power, while the good people were oppressed. 坏人当道,好人受气
  • He was nominally the leader, but others actually wielded the power. 名义上他是领导者,但实际上是别人掌握实权。
6 substantiate PsRwu     
  • There is little scientific evidence to substantiate the claims.这些主张几乎找不到科学依据来证实。
  • These theories are used to substantiate the relationship between the phenomenons of the universe.这些学说是用来证实宇宙现象之间的关系。
7 automating 2b259dca6072e7443e207b0e02234c2e     
(使)自动化( automate的现在分词 )
  • Have you ever thought about automating any part of your business? 你有没有想过把你公司的某个部门自动化?
  • We are in process of automating the production department. 我们正在对生产部门实行自动化。
8 conspiracy NpczE     
  • The men were found guilty of conspiracy to murder.这些人被裁决犯有阴谋杀人罪。
  • He claimed that it was all a conspiracy against him.他声称这一切都是一场针对他的阴谋。
9 analyzing be408cc8d92ec310bb6260bc127c162b     
v.分析;分析( analyze的现在分词 );分解;解释;对…进行心理分析n.分析
  • Analyzing the date of some socialist countries presents even greater problem s. 分析某些社会主义国家的统计数据,暴露出的问题甚至更大。 来自辞典例句
  • He undoubtedly was not far off the mark in analyzing its predictions. 当然,他对其预测所作的分析倒也八九不离十。 来自辞典例句
10 laborers c8c6422086151d6c0ae2a95777108e3c     
n.体力劳动者,工人( laborer的名词复数 );(熟练工人的)辅助工
  • Laborers were trained to handle 50-ton compactors and giant cranes. 工人们接受操作五十吨压土机和巨型起重机的训练。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. 雇佣劳动完全是建立在工人的自相竞争之上的。 来自英汉非文学 - 共产党宣言
11 formerly ni3x9     
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
12 technologically WqpwY     
  • Shanghai is a technologically advanced city. 上海是中国的一个技术先进的城市。
  • Many senior managers are technologically illiterate. 许多高级经理都对技术知之甚少。
13 exclusion 1hCzz     
  • Don't revise a few topics to the exclusion of all others.不要修改少数论题以致排除所有其他的。
  • He plays golf to the exclusion of all other sports.他专打高尔夫球,其他运动一概不参加。
14 participation KS9zu     
  • Some of the magic tricks called for audience participation.有些魔术要求有观众的参与。
  • The scheme aims to encourage increased participation in sporting activities.这个方案旨在鼓励大众更多地参与体育活动。
15 automated fybzf9     
  • The entire manufacturing process has been automated. 整个生产过程已自动化。
  • Automated Highway System (AHS) is recently regarded as one subsystem of Intelligent Transport System (ITS). 近年来自动公路系统(Automated Highway System,AHS),作为智能运输系统的子系统之一越来越受到重视。
16 generalization 6g4xv     
  • This sweeping generalization is the law of conservation of energy.这一透彻的概括就是能量守恒定律。
  • The evaluation of conduct involves some amount of generalization.对操行的评价会含有一些泛泛之论。
17 implemented a0211e5272f6fc75ac06e2d62558aff0     
v.实现( implement的过去式和过去分词 );执行;贯彻;使生效
  • This agreement, if not implemented, is a mere scrap of paper. 这个协定如不执行只不过是一纸空文。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • The economy is in danger of collapse unless far-reaching reforms are implemented. 如果不实施影响深远的改革,经济就面临崩溃的危险。 来自辞典例句
18 technically wqYwV     
  • Technically it is the most advanced equipment ever.从技术上说,这是最先进的设备。
  • The tomato is technically a fruit,although it is eaten as a vegetable.严格地说,西红柿是一种水果,尽管它是当作蔬菜吃的。
19 motives 6c25d038886898b20441190abe240957     
n.动机,目的( motive的名词复数 )
  • to impeach sb's motives 怀疑某人的动机
  • His motives are unclear. 他的用意不明。