文章来源: 文章作者: 发布时间:2008-10-25 06:01 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Passage 34

  Kazuko Nakane‘s history of the early Japanese immi-grants to central California’s Pajaro Valley focuses on the development of farming communities there from 1890 to 1940. The Issei (first-generation immigrants)(5) were brought into the Pajaro Valley to raise sugar beets2. Like Issei laborers4 in American cities, Japanese men in rural areas sought employment via the “boss” system. The system comprised three elements: immigrant wage laborers; Issei boardinghouses where laborers stayed;(10) and labor3 contractors5, who gathered workers for a particular job and then negotiated a contract between workers and employer. This same system was originally utilized6 by the Chinese laborers who had preceded the Japanese. A related institution was the “labor club,”(15)which provided job information and negotiated employ-ment contracts and other legal matters, such as the rental7 of land, for Issei who chose to belong and paid an annual fee to the cooperative for membership.
  When the local sugar beet1 industry collapsed9 in 1902,(20) the Issei began to lease land from the valley‘s strawberry farmers. The Japanese provided the labor and the crop  was divided between laborers and landowners. The Issei  began to operate farms, they began to marry and start families, forming an established Japanese American(30) community. Unfortunately, the Issei’s efforts to attain10 agricultural independence were hampered11 by govern-  ment restrictions12, such as the Alien Land Law of 1913.  But immigrants could circumvent13 such exclusionary14 laws  by leasing or purchasing land in their American-born(35) children‘s names.
  Nakane‘s case study of one rural Japanese American community provides valuable information about the lives and experiences of the Isseil. It is, however, too particularistic. This limitation derives15 from Nakane’s(40) methodology-that of oral history-which cannot substitute for a broader theoretical or comparative  perspective. Furture research might well consider two issues raised by her study: were the Issei of the Pajaro Valley similar to or different from Issei in urban settings,(45) and what variations existed between rural Japanese American communities?

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
   (A) defend a controversial hypothesis presented in a history of early Japanese immigrants to Califronia
   (B) dismiss a history of an early Japanese settlement in California as narrow and ill constructed
   (C) summarize and critique a history of an early Japanese settlement in California
   (D) compare a history of one Japanese American community with studies of Japanese settlements   throughout California
   (E) examine the differences between Japanese andChinese immigrants to central California in the1890‘s

  2. Which of the following best describes a “labor club,” as defined in the passage?
   (A) An organization to which Issei were compelled to belong if they sought employment in the Pajaro Valley
   (B) An association whose members included labor contractors and landowning “bosses”
   (C) A type of farming corporation set up by Issei who had resided in the Pajaro Valley for some time
   (D) A cooperative association whose members were dues-paying Japanese laborers
   (E) A social organization to which Japanese laborers and their families belonged

  3. Based on information in the passage, which of the following statements concerning the Alien Land Law of 1913 is most accurate?
   (A) It excluded American-born citizens of Japanese ancestry16 from landownership.
   (B) It sought to restrict the number of foreign immigrants to California.
   (C) It successfully prevented Issei from ever purchasing farmland.
   (D) It was applicable to first-generation immigrants but not to their American-born children.
   (E) It was passed under pressure from the Pajaro Valley‘s strawberry farmers.

  4. Several Issei families join together to purchase a strawberry field and the necessary farming equipment. Such a situation best exemplifies which of the following, as it is described in the passage?
   (A) A typical sharecropping agreement
   (B) A farming corporation
   (C) A “labor club”
   (D) The “boss” system
   (E) Circumvention17 of the Alien Land Law

  5. The passage suggests that which of the following was an indirect consequence of the collapse8 of the sugar beet industry in the Pajaro Valley?
   (A) The Issei formed a permanent, family-based community.
   (B) Boardinghouses were built to accommodate the Issei.
   (C) The Issei began to lease land in their children‘snames.
   (D) The Issei adopted a labor contract system similar to that used by Chinese immigrants.
   (E) The Issei suffered a massive dislocation caused by unemployment.

  6. The author of the passage would most likely agree that which of the following, if it had been included in Nakane‘s study, would best remedy the particularistic nature of that study?
   (A) A statistical18 table comparing per capita income of Issei wage laborers and sharecroppers in the PajaroValley
    (B) A statistical table showing per capita income of Issei in the Pajaro Valley from 1890 to 1940
   (C) A statistical table showing rates of farm ownership by Japanese Americans in four central California counties from 1890 to 1940
   (D) A discussion of original company documents dealing19 with the Pajaro Valley sugar beet industry at the turn of the century
   (E) Transcripts20 of interviews conducted with members of the Pajaro Valley Japanese American community who were born in the 1920‘s and 1930’s.

  7. It can be inferred from the passage that, when the Issei began to lease land from the Valley‘s strawberry farmers, the Issei most probably did which of the following?
   (A) They used profits made from selling the strawberry crop to hire other Issei.
   (B) They negotiated such agricultural contracts using the “boss” system.
   (C) They paid for the use of the land with a share of the strawberry crop.
   (D) They earned higher wages than when they raised sugar beets.
   (E) They violated the Alien Land Law.


1 beet 9uXzV     
  • He farmed his pickers to work in the beet fields. 他出租他的摘棉工去甜菜地里干活。
  • The sugar beet is an entirely different kind of plant.糖用甜菜是一种完全不同的作物。
2 beets 88b1e961db3387e932ee94bcb085128f     
甜菜( beet的名词复数 ); 甜菜根; (因愤怒、难堪或觉得热而)脸红
  • Beets are Hank's favorite vegetable. 甜菜根是汉克最爱吃的蔬菜。
  • In this enlargement, barley, alfalfa, and sugar beets can be differentiated. 在这张放大的照片上,大麦,苜蓿和甜菜都能被区分开。
3 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
4 laborers c8c6422086151d6c0ae2a95777108e3c     
n.体力劳动者,工人( laborer的名词复数 );(熟练工人的)辅助工
  • Laborers were trained to handle 50-ton compactors and giant cranes. 工人们接受操作五十吨压土机和巨型起重机的训练。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Wage-labour rests exclusively on competition between the laborers. 雇佣劳动完全是建立在工人的自相竞争之上的。 来自英汉非文学 - 共产党宣言
5 contractors afd5c0fd2ee43e4ecee8159c7a7c63e4     
n.(建筑、监造中的)承包人( contractor的名词复数 )
  • We got estimates from three different contractors before accepting the lowest. 我们得到3个承包商的报价后,接受了最低的报价。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Contractors winning construction jobs had to kick back 2 per cent of the contract price to the mafia. 赢得建筑工作的承包商得抽出合同价格的百分之二的回扣给黑手党。 来自《简明英汉词典》
6 utilized a24badb66c4d7870fd211f2511461fff     
v.利用,使用( utilize的过去式和过去分词 )
  • In the19th century waterpower was widely utilized to generate electricity. 在19世纪人们大规模使用水力来发电。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The empty building can be utilized for city storage. 可以利用那栋空建筑物作城市的仓库。 来自《简明英汉词典》
7 rental cBezh     
  • The yearly rental of her house is 2400 yuan.她这房子年租金是2400元。
  • We can organise car rental from Chicago O'Hare Airport.我们可以安排提供从芝加哥奥黑尔机场出发的租车服务。
8 collapse aWvyE     
  • The country's economy is on the verge of collapse.国家的经济已到了崩溃的边缘。
  • The engineer made a complete diagnosis of the bridge's collapse.工程师对桥的倒塌做了一次彻底的调查分析。
9 collapsed cwWzSG     
  • Jack collapsed in agony on the floor. 杰克十分痛苦地瘫倒在地板上。
  • The roof collapsed under the weight of snow. 房顶在雪的重压下突然坍塌下来。
10 attain HvYzX     
  • I used the scientific method to attain this end. 我用科学的方法来达到这一目的。
  • His painstaking to attain his goal in life is praiseworthy. 他为实现人生目标所下的苦功是值得称赞的。
11 hampered 3c5fb339e8465f0b89285ad0a790a834     
妨碍,束缚,限制( hamper的过去式和过去分词 )
  • The search was hampered by appalling weather conditions. 恶劣的天气妨碍了搜寻工作。
  • So thought every harassed, hampered, respectable boy in St. Petersburg. 圣彼德堡镇的那些受折磨、受拘束的体面孩子们个个都是这么想的。
12 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
13 circumvent gXvz0     
  • Military planners tried to circumvent the treaty.军事策略家们企图绕开这一条约。
  • Any action I took to circumvent his scheme was justified.我为斗赢他的如意算盘而采取的任何行动都是正当的。
14 exclusionary 7b922c7ff4e4ecd651577aafa4370540     
  • Play not finish, uncle fidgeting, cut exclusionary. 戏未演完,叔父坐立不安,仓皇退席。 来自互联网
  • Procecutor: I am asking you to recognize the absurdity of the exclusionary rule. 检察官:我是在请求您认识到这个排除规则的荒谬性。 来自互联网
15 derives c6c3177a6f731a3d743ccd3c53f3f460     
v.得到( derive的第三人称单数 );(从…中)得到获得;源于;(从…中)提取
  • English derives in the main from the common Germanic stock. 英语主要源于日耳曼语系。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • He derives his income from freelance work. 他以自由职业获取收入。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 ancestry BNvzf     
  • Their ancestry settled the land in 1856.他们的祖辈1856年在这块土地上定居下来。
  • He is an American of French ancestry.他是法国血统的美国人。
17 circumvention 88808eae8f7df50d41987ef34191a312     
  • They gave a pledge that there would be no circumvention via third coutries. 他们保证不会有通过第三国进行包围的事。 来自辞典例句
  • The anti-circumvention clause has its " validity and rationality. " 反规避条款有其存在的合法性和合理性。 来自互联网
18 statistical bu3wa     
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。
19 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
20 transcripts 525c0b10bb61e5ddfdd47d7faa92db26     
n.抄本( transcript的名词复数 );转写本;文字本;副本
  • Like mRNA, both tRNA and rRNA are transcripts of chromosomal DNA. tRNA及rRNA同mRNA一样,都是染色体DNA的转录产物。 来自辞典例句
  • You can't take the transfer students'exam without your transcripts. 没有成绩证明书,你就不能参加转学考试。 来自辞典例句