什么让我们害怕?
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2021-01-28 08:24 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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蜘蛛、飞行、看牙医…… 这些都是可能让我们感到惧怕的事情。因为无法控制这种恐惧感,久而久之,就产生了恐惧症。本文讨论让人产生恐惧的原因以及应如何控制自己的情绪。
 
What are the things that scare you: snakes, spiders or creepy crawlies? Or maybe you have a fear of heights or visiting the dentist. Although some of us just get scared or a bit nervous about these things, for others it can cause an irrational1 reaction that can't be controlled – something we call a phobia. It occurs when someone develops an exaggerated or unrealistic sense of danger about a situation or object.
 
Sometimes it's good to be aware of the possible dangers from things. Our brain alerts us to the risks that might lie ahead, but then we often rationalise the risks and overcome them. Clinical psychologist Warren Mansell told the BBC: "Our fears are hard-wired into our brains – we don't need to learn to be afraid of animals like snakes or spiders." But phobias are stronger than just fears. Warren says: "An area called the amygdala in the brain is recognising a threat and preparing your body for fight or flight." With a phobia, your breathing gets quicker, your pulse speeds up, you sweat, there's more glucose2 in your blood, increasing your energy, and your brain is unable to control these reactions. 
 
But where does a phobia come from? Speaking to the BBC, Lauren Rosenberg, a fear and phobia expert, says: "Phobias usually are a copy behaviour from a higher authority, like a parent or teacher, or something you have learnt from your own experience." Or a trauma3 from a past event that comes back to haunt you.
 
There are many different complex phobias some people suffer from, such as agoraphobia – triggered by being away from home, social anxiety disorder4 – feeling anxious in social situations, and iatrophobia – fear of doctors. But how can they be overcome? Cognitive5 behavioural therapy is one option, where you gradually get used to whatever it is you fear. Lauren Rosenburg says she likes to work with people to clear their subconscious6 memory and help them breathe. But if you do have a phobia, continually trying to avoid what you're afraid of is likely to make the situation worse, so it's a good idea to find help to overcome it.


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1 irrational UaDzl     
adj.无理性的,失去理性的
参考例句:
  • After taking the drug she became completely irrational.她在吸毒后变得完全失去了理性。
  • There are also signs of irrational exuberance among some investors.在某些投资者中是存在非理性繁荣的征象的。
2 glucose Fyiyz     
n.葡萄糖
参考例句:
  • I gave him an extra dose of glucose to pep him up.我给他多注射了一剂葡萄糖以增强他的活力。
  • The doctor injected glucose into his patient's veins.医生将葡萄糖注入病人的静脉。
3 trauma TJIzJ     
n.外伤,精神创伤
参考例句:
  • Counselling is helping him work through this trauma.心理辅导正帮助他面对痛苦。
  • The phobia may have its root in a childhood trauma.恐惧症可能源于童年时期的创伤。
4 disorder Et1x4     
n.紊乱,混乱;骚动,骚乱;疾病,失调
参考例句:
  • When returning back,he discovered the room to be in disorder.回家后,他发现屋子里乱七八糟。
  • It contained a vast number of letters in great disorder.里面七零八落地装着许多信件。
5 cognitive Uqwz0     
adj.认知的,认识的,有感知的
参考例句:
  • As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
  • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
6 subconscious Oqryw     
n./adj.潜意识(的),下意识(的)
参考例句:
  • Nail biting is often a subconscious reaction to tension.咬指甲通常是紧张时的下意识反映。
  • My answer seemed to come from the subconscious.我的回答似乎出自下意识。
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