文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2012-12-05 06:45 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
Researchers at the University of Iowa have documented an activity by infants that begins nearly from birth: They learn by taking inventory1 of the things they see. In a new paper, the psychologists contend that infants create knowledge by looking at and learning about their surroundings. The activities should be viewed as intertwined(缠绕的), rather than considered separately, to fully2 appreciate how infants gain knowledge and how that knowledge is seared into memory.
"The link between looking and learning is much more intricate than what people have assumed," says John Spencer, a psychology3 professor at the UI and a co-author on the paper published in the journal Cognitive4 Science.
The researchers created a mathematical model that mimics5, in real time and through months of child development, how infants use looking to understand their environment. Such a model is important because it validates6 the importance of looking to learning and to forming memories. It also can be adapted by child development specialists to help special-needs children and infants born prematurely7 to combine looking and learning more effectively.
"The model can look, like infants, at a world that includes dynamic, stimulating8 events that influence where it looks. We contend (the model) provides a critical link to studying how social partners influence how infants distribute their looks, learn, and develop," the authors write.
The model examines the looking-learning behavior of infants as young as 6 weeks through one year of age, through 4,800 simulations at various points in development involving multiple stimuli9 and tasks. As would be expected, most infants introduced to new objects tend to look at them to gather information about them; once they do, they are "biased10" to look away from them in search of something new. In other words, an infant will linger on something that's being shown to it for the first time as it learns about it, and that the "total looking time" will decrease as the infant becomes more familiar with it.
But the researchers found that infants who don't spend a sufficient amount of time studying a new object -- in effect, failing to learn about it and to catalog that knowledge into memory -- don't catch on as well, which can affect their learning later on.
"Infants need to dwell on things for a while to learn about them," says Sammy Perone, a post-doctoral researcher in psychology at the UI and corresponding author on the paper.
To examine why infants need to dwell on objects to learn about them, the researchers created two different models. One model learned in a "responsive" world: Every time the model looked away from a new object, the object was jiggled to get the model to look at it again. The other model learned in a "nonresponsive" world: when this model looked at a new object, objects elsewhere were jiggled to distract it. The results showed that the responsive models"learned about new objects more robustly11, more quickly, and are better learners in the end," says Perone, who earned his doctorate12 at the UI in 2010. The model captures infant looking and learning as young as 6 weeks. Even at that age, the UI researchers were able to document that infants can familiarize themselves with new objects, and store them into memory well enough that when shown them again, they quickly recognized them.
"To our knowledge, these are the first quantitative13 simulations of looking data from infants this young," the authors write.
The results underscore the notion that looking is a critical entry point into the cognitive processes in the brain that begin in children nearly from birth. And, "if that's the case, we can manipulate and change what the brain is doing" to aid infants born prematurely or who have special needs, Perone adds.
"The promise of a model that implements14 looking as an active behavior is that it might explain and predict how specific manipulations of looking over time will impact subsequent learning," the researchers write.
The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, grant number 5R01MH62480.


1 inventory 04xx7     
  • Some stores inventory their stock once a week.有些商店每周清点存货一次。
  • We will need to call on our supplier to get more inventory.我们必须请供应商送来更多存货。
2 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
3 psychology U0Wze     
  • She has a background in child psychology.她受过儿童心理学的教育。
  • He studied philosophy and psychology at Cambridge.他在剑桥大学学习哲学和心理学。
4 cognitive Uqwz0     
  • As children grow older,their cognitive processes become sharper.孩子们越长越大,他们的认知过程变得更为敏锐。
  • The cognitive psychologist is like the tinker who wants to know how a clock works.认知心理学者倒很像一个需要通晓钟表如何运转的钟表修理匠。
5 mimics f8207fb5fa948f536c5186311e3e641d     
n.模仿名人言行的娱乐演员,滑稽剧演员( mimic的名词复数 );善于模仿的人或物v.(尤指为了逗乐而)模仿( mimic的第三人称单数 );酷似
  • Methods:Models were generate by CT scan,Mimics software and Abaqus software. 方法:采用CT扫描,Mimics软件和Abaqus软件的CAD进行三维有限元模型的创建。 来自互联网
  • Relaxing the mind and body mimics the effect that some blood-pressure pills would have. 放松身心会产生某些降压药才能产生的效果。 来自辞典例句
6 validates d28f3305a883e5207d6097da0b7642f0     
v.证实( validate的第三人称单数 );确证;使生效;使有法律效力
  • Other research validates that when it comes to chocolate, type does matter. 其他的研究也证实了不同种类的巧克力确实功效不同。 来自互联网
  • Trouble shoots equipment, review and validates data and complete reports. 管理错误描述设备,审查并确认试验数据,完成试验报告。 来自互联网
7 prematurely nlMzW4     
  • She was born prematurely with poorly developed lungs. 她早产,肺部未发育健全。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • His hair was prematurely white, but his busy eyebrows were still jet-black. 他的头发已经白了,不过两道浓眉还是乌黑乌黑的。 来自辞典例句
8 stimulating ShBz7A     
  • shower gel containing plant extracts that have a stimulating effect on the skin 含有对皮肤有益的植物精华的沐浴凝胶
  • This is a drug for stimulating nerves. 这是一种兴奋剂。
9 stimuli luBwM     
  • It is necessary to curtail or alter normally coexisting stimuli.必需消除或改变正常时并存的刺激。
  • My sweat glands also respond to emotional stimuli.我的汗腺对情绪刺激也能产生反应。
10 biased vyGzSn     
  • a school biased towards music and art 一所偏重音乐和艺术的学校
  • The Methods: They employed were heavily biased in the gentry's favour. 他们采用的方法严重偏袒中上阶级。
11 robustly 507ac3bec7e7c48e608da00e709f9006     
  • These three hormones also robustly stimulated thymidine incorporation and inhibited drug-induced apoptosis. 并且这三种激素有利于胸(腺嘧啶脱氧核)苷掺入和抑制药物诱导的细胞凋亡。 来自互联网
  • The economy is still growing robustly, but inflation, It'seems, is back. 经济依然强劲增长,但是通胀似乎有所抬头。 来自互联网
12 doctorate fkEzt     
  • He hasn't enough credits to get his doctorate.他的学分不够取得博士学位。
  • Where did she do her doctorate?她在哪里攻读博士?
13 quantitative TCpyg     
  • He said it was only a quantitative difference.他说这仅仅是数量上的差别。
  • We need to do some quantitative analysis of the drugs.我们对药物要进行定量分析。
14 implements 37371cb8af481bf82a7ea3324d81affc     
n.工具( implement的名词复数 );家具;手段;[法律]履行(契约等)v.实现( implement的第三人称单数 );执行;贯彻;使生效
  • Primitive man hunted wild animals with crude stone implements. 原始社会的人用粗糙的石器猎取野兽。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • They ordered quantities of farm implements. 他们订购了大量农具。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
TAG标签: infants looking learn