文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2011-06-03 02:44 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Humans have been building reservoirs(水库) and dams for thousands of years. Over the past few decades, their construction has spiked1 as our need to harness water – critical in flood control, irrigation, recreation, navigation and the creation of hydroelectric power(水力发电) – has grown. And while dams and reservoirs have important benefits, they can also be disruptive and costly2 to both humans and the environment. A close assessment3 of critical environmental and social tradeoffs(权衡,折衷) associated with dams and reservoirs within the global river network has been impossible because the data describing their location, size and purpose have been incomplete and inadequate4.

That is, until now.

The culmination5 of a four-year collaboration6 by a team of scientists from around the globe, coordinated7 by the Global Water System Project and led by McGill University's Bernhard Lehner, has produced the Global Reservoir and Dam database (GRanD), a unique, geographically8 explicit9, high-resolution global database of large dams and reservoirs.

"Thorough continental10 assessments11 and ongoing12 sustainable dam management and planning haven't been possible due to a lack of data. We've only been able to look at dams on a case-by-case basis," explained Lehner. "The Three Gorges13 Dam, for example, has been heavily investigated, but no one ever included the 100-plus large dams upstream from it in a single impact assessment. Now we can look at all of them at the same time to figure out what the combined effect is. This gives us a holistic14(整体的) view of a whole river basin."

According to the paper published on May 31 in Frontiers in Ecology, GRanD currently contains information regarding 6,862 dams and their associated reservoirs with a total storage capacity of 6,197km. Based on this figure, the authors estimate that about 16.7 million reservoirs larger than 0.01ha may exist worldwide. The team also found that nearly 50 per cent of large rivers – that is, those with an average flow of more than 1000m3 per second – are affected15 by large dams and reservoirs worldwide. GRanD data includes (in most cases) the dam and reservoir names, spatial16 co-ordinates, construction year, surface area, storage capacity, dam height main purpose and elevation17.


1 spiked 5fab019f3e0b17ceef04e9d1198b8619     
  • The editor spiked the story. 编辑删去了这篇报道。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • They wondered whether their drinks had been spiked. 他们有些疑惑自己的饮料里是否被偷偷搀了烈性酒。 来自辞典例句
2 costly 7zXxh     
  • It must be very costly to keep up a house like this.维修这么一幢房子一定很昂贵。
  • This dictionary is very useful,only it is a bit costly.这本词典很有用,左不过贵了些。
3 assessment vO7yu     
  • This is a very perceptive assessment of the situation.这是一个对该情况的极富洞察力的评价。
  • What is your assessment of the situation?你对时局的看法如何?
4 inadequate 2kzyk     
  • The supply is inadequate to meet the demand.供不应求。
  • She was inadequate to the demands that were made on her.她还无力满足对她提出的各项要求。
5 culmination 9ycxq     
  • The space race reached its culmination in the first moon walk.太空竞争以第一次在月球行走而达到顶峰。
  • It may truly be regarded as the culmination of classical Greek geometry.这确实可以看成是古典希腊几何的登峰造级之作。
6 collaboration bW7yD     
  • The two companies are working in close collaboration each other.这两家公司密切合作。
  • He was shot for collaboration with the enemy.他因通敌而被枪毙了。
7 coordinated 72452d15f78aec5878c1559a1fbb5383     
  • The sound has to be coordinated with the picture. 声音必须和画面协调一致。
  • The numerous existing statutes are complicated and poorly coordinated. 目前繁多的法令既十分复杂又缺乏快调。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
8 geographically mg6xa     
  • Geographically, the UK is on the periphery of Europe. 从地理位置上讲,英国处于欧洲边缘。 来自辞典例句
  • All these events, however geographically remote, urgently affected Western financial centers. 所有这些事件,无论发生在地理上如何遥远的地方,都对西方金融中心产生紧迫的影响。 来自名作英译部分
9 explicit IhFzc     
  • She was quite explicit about why she left.她对自己离去的原因直言不讳。
  • He avoids the explicit answer to us.他避免给我们明确的回答。
10 continental Zazyk     
  • A continental climate is different from an insular one.大陆性气候不同于岛屿气候。
  • The most ancient parts of the continental crust are 4000 million years old.大陆地壳最古老的部分有40亿年历史。
11 assessments 7d0657785d6e5832f8576c61c78262ef     
n.评估( assessment的名词复数 );评价;(应偿付金额的)估定;(为征税对财产所作的)估价
  • He was shrewd in his personal assessments. 他总能对人作出精明的评价。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Surveys show about two-thirds use such assessments, while half employ personality tests. 调查表明,约有三分之二的公司采用了这种测评;而一半的公司则采用工作人员个人品质测试。 来自百科语句
12 ongoing 6RvzT     
  • The problem is ongoing.这个问题尚未解决。
  • The issues raised in the report relate directly to Age Concern's ongoing work in this area.报告中提出的问题与“关心老人”组织在这方面正在做的工作有直接的关系。
13 gorges 5cde0ae7c1a8aab9d4231408f62e6d4d     
n.山峡,峡谷( gorge的名词复数 );咽喉v.(用食物把自己)塞饱,填饱( gorge的第三人称单数 );作呕
  • The explorers were confronted with gorges(that were)almost impassable and rivers(that were)often unfordable. 探险人员面临着几乎是无路可通的峡谷和常常是无法渡过的河流。 来自辞典例句
  • We visited the Yangtse Gorges last summer. 去年夏天我们游历了长江三峡。 来自辞典例句
14 holistic OQqzJ     
  • There is a fundamental ambiguity in the use of word "whole" in recent holistic literature.在近代的整体主义著作中,“整体”这个词的用法极其含混。
  • In so far as historicism is technological,its approach is not piecemeal,but "holistic".仅就历史决定论是一种技术而论,它的方法不是渐进的,而是“整体主义的”。
15 affected TzUzg0     
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
16 spatial gvcww     
  • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects.大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
  • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement.他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
17 elevation bqsxH     
  • The house is at an elevation of 2,000 metres.那幢房子位于海拔两千米的高处。
  • His elevation to the position of General Manager was announced yesterday.昨天宣布他晋升总经理职位。
TAG标签: water river dams