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Passage 32
    Increasingly, historians are blaming diseases imported from the Old World for the staggering disparity between the indigenous1 population of America in 1492-new esti-mates of which soar as high as 100 million, or approxi-(5)mately one-sixth of the human race at that time-and the few million full-blooded Native Americans alive at the end of the nineteenth century. There is no doubt that chronic2 disease was an important factor in the precipi- tous decline, and it is highly probable that the greatest(10) killer3 was epidemic4 disease, especially as manifested in  virgin-soil epidemics5.
    Virgin-soil epidemics are those in which the popula-tions at risk have had no previous contact with the diseases that strike them and are therefore immunologi-(15)cally almost defenseless. That virgin-soil epidemics were important in American history is strongly indicated by evidence that a number of dangerous maladies-small-pox, measles6malaria7, yellow fever, and undoubtedly8 several more-were unknown in the pre-Columbian(20)New World. The effects of their sudden introduction are demonstrated in the early chronicles of America, which contain reports of horrendous9 epidemics and steep population declines, confirmed in many cases by recent quantitative10 analyses of Spanish tribute records and(25) other sources. The evidence provided by the documents of British and French colonies is not as definitive11 because the conquerors12 of those areas did not establish permanent settlements and begin to keep continuous records until the seventeenth century, by which time the(30)worst epidemics had probably already taken place. Furthermore, the British tended to drive the native populations away,rather than enslaving them as the Spaniards did, so that the epidemics of British America occurred beyond the range of colonists13‘ direct(35) observation.
     Even so, the surviving records of North America do contain references to deadly epidemics among the indige-nous population. In 1616-1619 an epidemic, possibly of bubonic or pneumonic14 plague, swept coastal15 New(40) England, killing16 as many as nine out of ten. During the 1630‘s smallpox17, the disease most fatal to the Native  American people, eliminated half the population of the Huron and Iroquois confederations. In the 1820’s fever  devastated18 the people of the Columbia River area,(45) killing eight out of ten of them.
    Unfortunately, the documentation of these and other epidemics is slight and frequently unreliable, and it is ecessary to supplement what little we do know with evidence from recent epidemics among Native Ameri-(50) cans. For example, in 1952 an outbreak of measles among the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay. Quebec, affected19 99 percent of the population and killed 7 percent, even though some had the benefit of modern medicine. Cases such as this demonstrate that even(55) diseases that are not normally fatal can have devastating20 consequences when they strike an immunologically defenseless community.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
   (A) refute a common misconception
   (B) provide support for a hypothesis
   (C) analyze21 an argument
   (D) suggest a solution to a dilemma22
   (E) reconcile opposing viewpoints

  2. According to the passage, virgin-soil epidemics can be distinguished23 from other catastrophic outbreaks of disease in that virgin-soil epidemics
   (A) recur24 more frequently than other chronic diseases
   (B) affect a minimum of one-half of a given population
   (C) involve populations with no prior exposure to a disease
   (D) usually involve a number of interacting diseases
   (E) are less responsive to medical treatment than are other diseases

  3. According to the passage, the British colonists wereunlike the Spanish colonists in that the British colonists
   (A) collected tribute from the native population
   (B) kept records from a very early date
   (C) drove Native Americans off the land
   (D) were unable to provide medical care against epidemic disease
   (E) enslaved the native populations in America

  4. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage concerning Spanish tribute records?
   (A) They mention only epidemics of smallpox.
   (B) They were instituted in 1492.
   (C) They were being kept prior to the seventeenth century.
   (D) They provide quantitative and qualitative25 evidence about Native American populations.
   (E) They prove that certain diseases were unknown in the pre-Columbian New World.

  5. The author implies which of the following about measles?
   (A) It is not usually a fatal disease.
   (B) It ceased to be a problem by the seventeenth century.
   (C) It is the disease most commonly involved in virgin-soil epidemics.
   (D) It was not a significant problem in Spanish colonies.
   (E) It affects only those who are immunologically defenseless against it.

  6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the Native American inhabitants of Ungava Bay?
   (A) They were almost all killed by the 1952 epidemic.
   (B) They were immunologically defenseless against measles.
   (C) They were the last native people to be struck by a virgin- soil epidemic.
   (D) They did not come into frequent contact with white Americans until the twentieth century.
   (E) They had been inoculated26 against measles.

  7. The author mentions the 1952 measles outbreak most probably in order to
   (A) demonstrate the impact of modern medicine on epidemic disease
   (B) corroborate27 the documentary evidence of epidemic disease in colonial America
   (C) refute allegations of unreliability made against the historical record of colonial America
   (D) advocate new research into the continuing problem of epidemic disease
   (E) challenge assumptions about how the statistical28 evidence of epidemics should be interpreted

  8. Which of the following, if newly discovered, would most seriously weaken the author‘s argument concerning the importance of virgin-soil epidemics in the depopulation of Native Americans?
   (A) Evidence setting the pre-Columbian population of the New World at only 80 million
   (B) Spanish tribute records showing periodic population fluctuations
   (C) Documents detailing sophisticated Native American medical procedures
   (D) Fossils indicating Native American cortact with smallpox prior to 1492
   (E) Remains of French settlements dating back to the sixteenth century


1 indigenous YbBzt     
  • Each country has its own indigenous cultural tradition.每个国家都有自己本土的文化传统。
  • Indians were the indigenous inhabitants of America.印第安人是美洲的土著居民。
2 chronic BO9zl     
  • Famine differs from chronic malnutrition.饥荒不同于慢性营养不良。
  • Chronic poisoning may lead to death from inanition.慢性中毒也可能由虚弱导致死亡。
3 killer rpLziK     
  • Heart attacks have become Britain's No.1 killer disease.心脏病已成为英国的头号致命疾病。
  • The bulk of the evidence points to him as her killer.大量证据证明是他杀死她的。
4 epidemic 5iTzz     
  • That kind of epidemic disease has long been stamped out.那种传染病早已绝迹。
  • The authorities tried to localise the epidemic.当局试图把流行病限制在局部范围。
5 epidemics 4taziV     
  • Reliance upon natural epidemics may be both time-consuming and misleading. 依靠天然的流行既浪费时间,又会引入歧途。
  • The antibiotic epidemics usually start stop when the summer rainy season begins. 传染病通常会在夏天的雨季停止传播。
6 measles Bw8y9     
  • The doctor is quite definite about Tom having measles.医生十分肯定汤姆得了麻疹。
  • The doctor told her to watch out for symptoms of measles.医生叫她注意麻疹出现的症状。
7 malaria B2xyb     
  • He had frequent attacks of malaria.他常患疟疾。
  • Malaria is a kind of serious malady.疟疾是一种严重的疾病。
8 undoubtedly Mfjz6l     
  • It is undoubtedly she who has said that.这话明明是她说的。
  • He is undoubtedly the pride of China.毫无疑问他是中国的骄傲。
9 horrendous qd8zN     
  • He described it as the most horrendous experience of his life.他形容这是自己一生中最可怕的经历。
  • The mining industry in China has a horrendous safety record.中国的煤矿工业具有令人不安的安全记录。
10 quantitative TCpyg     
  • He said it was only a quantitative difference.他说这仅仅是数量上的差别。
  • We need to do some quantitative analysis of the drugs.我们对药物要进行定量分析。
11 definitive YxSxF     
  • This book is the definitive guide to world cuisine.这本书是世界美食的权威指南。
  • No one has come up with a definitive answer as to why this should be so.至于为什么该这样,还没有人给出明确的答复。
12 conquerors f5b4f288f8c1dac0231395ee7d455bd1     
征服者,占领者( conqueror的名词复数 )
  • The Danes had selfconfidence of conquerors, and their security precautions were casual. 这些丹麦人具有征服者的自信,而且他们的安全防卫也是漫不经心的。
  • The conquerors believed in crushing the defeated people into submission, knowing that they could not win their loyalty by the victory. 征服者们知道他们的胜利并不能赢得失败者的忠心,于是就认为只有通过武力才能将他们压服。
13 colonists 4afd0fece453e55f3721623f335e6c6f     
n.殖民地开拓者,移民,殖民地居民( colonist的名词复数 )
  • Colonists from Europe populated many parts of the Americas. 欧洲的殖民者移居到了美洲的许多地方。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Some of the early colonists were cruel to the native population. 有些早期移居殖民地的人对当地居民很残忍。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 pneumonic b4994eb4b73de876031269d0a894a231     
  • The chill superinduced a pneumonic condition. 受寒并发了肺炎。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • The fatality rate of pneumonic plague a staggering 95 percent. 肺鼠疫的死亡率是达到惊人95%。 来自互联网
15 coastal WWiyh     
  • The ocean waves are slowly eating away the coastal rocks.大海的波浪慢慢地侵蚀着岸边的岩石。
  • This country will fortify the coastal areas.该国将加强沿海地区的防御。
16 killing kpBziQ     
  • Investors are set to make a killing from the sell-off.投资者准备清仓以便大赚一笔。
  • Last week my brother made a killing on Wall Street.上个周我兄弟在华尔街赚了一大笔。
17 smallpox 9iNzJw     
  • In 1742 he suffered a fatal attack of smallpox.1742年,他染上了致命的天花。
  • Were you vaccinated against smallpox as a child?你小时候打过天花疫苗吗?
18 devastated eb3801a3063ef8b9664b1b4d1f6aaada     
v.彻底破坏( devastate的过去式和过去分词);摧毁;毁灭;在感情上(精神上、财务上等)压垮adj.毁坏的;极为震惊的
  • The bomb devastated much of the old part of the city. 这颗炸弹炸毁了旧城的一大片地方。
  • His family is absolutely devastated. 他的一家感到极为震惊。
19 affected TzUzg0     
  • She showed an affected interest in our subject.她假装对我们的课题感到兴趣。
  • His manners are affected.他的态度不自然。
20 devastating muOzlG     
  • It is the most devastating storm in 20 years.这是20年来破坏性最大的风暴。
  • Affairs do have a devastating effect on marriages.婚外情确实会对婚姻造成毁灭性的影响。
21 analyze RwUzm     
vt.分析,解析 (=analyse)
  • We should analyze the cause and effect of this event.我们应该分析这场事变的因果。
  • The teacher tried to analyze the cause of our failure.老师设法分析我们失败的原因。
22 dilemma Vlzzf     
  • I am on the horns of a dilemma about the matter.这件事使我进退两难。
  • He was thrown into a dilemma.他陷入困境。
23 distinguished wu9z3v     
  • Elephants are distinguished from other animals by their long noses.大象以其长长的鼻子显示出与其他动物的不同。
  • A banquet was given in honor of the distinguished guests.宴会是为了向贵宾们致敬而举行的。
24 recur wCqyG     
  • Economic crises recur periodically.经济危机周期性地发生。
  • Of course,many problems recur at various periods.当然,有许多问题会在不同的时期反复提出。
25 qualitative JC4yi     
  • There are qualitative differences in the way children and adults think.孩子和成年人的思维方式有质的不同。
  • Arms races have a quantitative and a qualitative aspects.军备竞赛具有数量和质量两个方面。
26 inoculated 6f20d8c4f94d9061a1b3ff05ba9dcd4a     
v.给…做预防注射( inoculate的过去式和过去分词 )
  • A pedigree pup should have been inoculated against serious diseases before it's sold. 纯种狗应该在出售前注射预防严重疾病的针。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Disease can be spread by dirty tools, insects, inoculated soil. 疾病也能由不干净的工具,昆虫,接种的土壤传播。 来自辞典例句
27 corroborate RoVzf     
  • He looked at me anxiously,as if he hoped I'd corroborate this.他神色不安地看着我,仿佛他希望我证实地的话。
  • It appeared that what he said went to corroborate my account.看来他所说的和我叙述的相符。
28 statistical bu3wa     
  • He showed the price fluctuations in a statistical table.他用统计表显示价格的波动。
  • They're making detailed statistical analysis.他们正在做具体的统计分析。