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Passage 31
  The number of women directors appointed to corpo-rate boards in the United States has increased dramati-cally, but the ratio of female to male directors remains1 low. Although pressure to recruit women directors,(5) unlike that to employ women in the general work force,does not derive2 from legislation, it is nevertheless real.
  Although small companies were the first to have women directors, large corporations currently have a higher percentage of women on their boards. When the(10) chairs of these large corporations began recruiting women to serve on boards, they initially4 sought women  who were chief executive officers (CEO‘s) of large corpo-  rations3. However, such women CEO’s are still rare. In  addition, the ideal of six CEO‘s (female or male ) serving(15)on the board of each of the largest corporations is realiz-able only if every CEO serves on six boards. This raises  the specter of director overcommitment and the resultant dilution5 of contribution. Consequently, the chairs nextsought women in business who had the equivalent of(20) CEO experience. However, since it is only recently thatlarge numbers of women have begun to rise in manage-ment, the chairs began to recruit women of high achieve-ment outside the business world. Many such women arewell known for their contributions in government,(25) education, and the nonprofit sector6. The fact that thewomen from these sectors7 who were appointed wereoften acquaintances of the boards’ chairs seems quitereasonable: chairs have always considered it importantfor directors to interact comfortably in the boardroom.30)Although many successful women from outside thebusiness world are unknown to corporate8 leaders, thesewomen are particularly qualified9 to serve on boardsbecause of the changing nature of corporations. Today acompany‘s ability to be responsive to the concerns of the35) community and the environment can influence thatcompany’s growth and survival. Women are uniquelypositioned to be responsive to some of these concerns.Although conditions have changed, it should be remem-bered that most directors of both sexes are over fifty(40) years old. Women of that generation were often encour-aged to direct their attention toward efforts to improvethe community. This fact is reflected in the career devel-opment of most of the outstandingly successful womenof the generation now in their fifties, who currently serve(45) on corporate boards: 25 percent are in education and  22 percent are in government, law, and the nonprofit sector.
  One organization of women directors is helping10 busi-ness become more responsive to the changing needs of(50) society by raising the level of corporate awareness11 aboutsocial issues, such as problems with the economy, government regulation, the aging population, and the environment. This organization also serves as a resource center of information on accomplished12 women who are(55) potential candidates for corporate boards.

  1. The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about achievement of the “ideal” mentioned in line 14?
   (A) It has only recently become a possibility.
   (B) It would be easier to meet if more CEO‘s were women
   (C) It is very close to being a reality for most corporate boards.
   (D) It might affect the quality of directors‘ service to corporations.
   (E) It would be more realizable if CEO‘s had a more extensive range of business experience.

  2. According to the passage, the pressure to appoint women to corporate boards differs from the pressure to employ women in the work force in which of the following ways?
   (A) Corporate boards are under less pressure because they have such a small number of openings.
   (B) Corporate boards have received less pressure from stockholders, consumers, and workers within companies to include women on their boards.
   (C) Corporate boards have received less pressure from the media and the public to include women on their boards.
   (D) Corporations have only recently been pressured toinclude women on their boards.
   (E) Corporations are not subject to statutory penalty forfailing to include women on their boards.

  3. All of the following are examples of issues that the organization described in the last paragraph would be likely to advise corporations on EXCEPT
   (A) long-term inflation
   (B) health and safety regulations
   (C) retirement13 and pension programs
   (D) the energy shortage
   (E) how to develop new markets

  4. It can be inferred from the passage that, when seeking to appoint new members to a corporation‘s board, the chair traditionally looked for candidates who
   (A) had legal and governmental experience
   (B) had experience dealing14 with community affairs
   (C) could work easily with other members of the board
   (D) were already involved in establishing policy for that corporation
   (E) had influential15 connections outside the business world

  5. According to the passage, which of the following is true about women outside the business world who are currently serving on corporate boards?
   (A) Most do not serve on more than one board.
   (B) A large percentage will eventually work on the staff of corporations.
   (C) Most were already known to the chairs of the board to which they were appointed.
   (D) A larger percentage are from government and law than are from the nonprofit sector.
   (E) Most are less than fifty years old.

  6. The passage suggests that corporations of the past differ from modern corporations in which of the following ways?
   (A) Corporations had greater input16 on government policies affecting the business community.
   (B) Corporations were less responsive to the financial needs of their employees.
   (C) The ability of a corporation to keep up with changing markets was not a crucial factor in its success.
   (D) A corporation‘s effectiveness in coping with community needs was less likely to affect its growth and prosperity.
   (E) Corporations were subject to more stringent17 government regulations.

  7. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
   (A) A problem is described, and then reasons why various proposed solutions succeeded or failed are discussed.
   (B) A problem is described, and then an advantage of resolving it is offered.
   (C) A problem is described, and then reasons for its continuing existence are summarized.
   (D) The historical origins of a problem are described, and then various measures that have successfully resolved it are discussed.
   (E) The causes of a problem are described, and then its effects are discussed.

  8. It can be inferred from the passage that factors making women uniquely valuable members of modern corporate boards would include which of the following?
   Ⅰ. The nature of modern corporations
   Ⅱ. The increased number of women CEO‘s
   Ⅲ. The careers pursued by women currently available to serve on corporate boards
   (A) Ⅰonly
   (B) Ⅱonly
   (C) Ⅲ only
   (D) Ⅰand Ⅲ only
   (E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ, and Ⅲ


1 remains 1kMzTy     
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
2 derive hmLzH     
  • We derive our sustenance from the land.我们从土地获取食物。
  • We shall derive much benefit from reading good novels.我们将从优秀小说中获得很大好处。
3 rations c925feb39d4cfbdc2c877c3b6085488e     
定量( ration的名词复数 ); 配给量; 正常量; 合理的量
  • They are provisioned with seven days' rations. 他们得到了7天的给养。
  • The soldiers complained that they were getting short rations. 士兵们抱怨他们得到的配给不够数。
4 initially 273xZ     
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首先遭到美国的反对。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
5 dilution pmvy9     
  • There is no hard and fast rule about dilution.至于稀释程度,没有严格的规定。
  • He attributed this to a dilution effect of the herbicide.他把这归因于除草剂的稀释效应。
6 sector yjczYn     
  • The export sector will aid the economic recovery. 出口产业将促进经济复苏。
  • The enemy have attacked the British sector.敌人已进攻英国防区。
7 sectors 218ffb34fa5fb6bc1691e90cd45ad627     
n.部门( sector的名词复数 );领域;防御地区;扇形
  • Berlin was divided into four sectors after the war. 战后柏林分成了4 个区。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Industry and agriculture are the two important sectors of the national economy. 工业和农业是国民经济的两个重要部门。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
8 corporate 7olzl     
  • This is our corporate responsibility.这是我们共同的责任。
  • His corporate's life will be as short as a rabbit's tail.他的公司的寿命是兔子尾巴长不了。
9 qualified DCPyj     
  • He is qualified as a complete man of letters.他有资格当真正的文学家。
  • We must note that we still lack qualified specialists.我们必须看到我们还缺乏有资质的专家。
10 helping 2rGzDc     
  • The poor children regularly pony up for a second helping of my hamburger. 那些可怜的孩子们总是要求我把我的汉堡包再给他们一份。
  • By doing this, they may at times be helping to restore competition. 这样一来, 他在某些时候,有助于竞争的加强。
11 awareness 4yWzdW     
  • There is a general awareness that smoking is harmful.人们普遍认识到吸烟有害健康。
  • Environmental awareness has increased over the years.这些年来人们的环境意识增强了。
12 accomplished UzwztZ     
  • Thanks to your help,we accomplished the task ahead of schedule.亏得你们帮忙,我们才提前完成了任务。
  • Removal of excess heat is accomplished by means of a radiator.通过散热器完成多余热量的排出。
13 retirement TWoxH     
  • She wanted to enjoy her retirement without being beset by financial worries.她想享受退休生活而不必为金钱担忧。
  • I have to put everything away for my retirement.我必须把一切都积蓄起来以便退休后用。
14 dealing NvjzWP     
  • This store has an excellent reputation for fair dealing.该商店因买卖公道而享有极高的声誉。
  • His fair dealing earned our confidence.他的诚实的行为获得我们的信任。
15 influential l7oxK     
  • He always tries to get in with the most influential people.他总是试图巴结最有影响的人物。
  • He is a very influential man in the government.他在政府中是个很有影响的人物。
16 input X6lxm     
  • I will forever be grateful for his considerable input.我将永远感激他的大量投入。
  • All this information had to be input onto the computer.所有这些信息都必须输入计算机。
17 stringent gq4yz     
  • Financiers are calling for a relaxation of these stringent measures.金融家呼吁对这些严厉的措施予以放宽。
  • Some of the conditions in the contract are too stringent.合同中有几项条件太苛刻。