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While there is no blueprint1 for transforming a largely government-controlled economy into a free one, the experience of the United Kingdom since 1979 clearly shows one approach that works: privatization, in which (5) state-owned industries are sold to private companies. By 1979, the total borrowings and losses of state-owned industries were running at about t3 billion a year. By selling many of these industries, the government has decreased these borrowings and losses, gained over t34 (10) billion from the sales, and now receives tax revenues from the newly privatized companies. Along with a dramatically improved overall economy, the government has been able to repay 12.5 percent of the net national debt over a two-year period.

  1. According to the passage, all of the following were benefits of privatizing state-owned industries in the United Kingdom EXCEPT:

  (A) Privatized industries paid taxes to the government.

  (B) The government gained revenue from selling state- owned industries.

  (C) The government repaid some of its national debt.

  (D) Profits from industries that were still state-owned increased.

  (E) Total borrowings and losses of state-owned industries decreased.

  2. According to the passage, which of the following resulted in increased productivity in companies that have been privatized?

  (A) A large number of employees chose to purchase shares in their companies.

  (B) Free shares were widely distributed to individual shareholders3.

  (C) The government ceased to regulate major industries.

  (D) Unions conducted wage negotiations4 for employees.

  (E) Employee-owners agreed to have their wages lowered.

  3. It can be inferred from the passage that the author considers labor5 disruptions to be
(A) an inevitable6 problem in a weak national economy

  (B) a positive sign of employee concern about a company

  (C) a predictor of employee reactions to a company's offer to sell shares to them

  (D) a phenomenon found more often in state-owned industries than in private companies

  (E) a deterrence7 to high performance levels in an industry

4. The passage supports which of the following statements about employees buying shares in their own companies?

  (A) At three different companies, approximately nine out of ten of the workers were eligible8 to buy shares in their companies.

  (B) Approximately 90% of the ellgible workers at three different companies chose o buy shares in their companies.

  (C) The opportunity to buy shares was discouraged by at least some labor unions.

  (D) Companies that demonstrated the highest productivity were the first to allow their employees the opportunity to buy shares.

  (E) Eligibility9 to buy shares was contingent10 on employees' agreeing to increased work loads.

  5. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the principle described in lines 30-32?

  (A) A democratic government that decides it is inappropriate to own a particular industry has in no way abdicated11 its responsibilities as guardian12 of the public interest.

  (B) The ideal way for a government to protect employee interests is to force companies to maintain their share of a competitive market without government subsidies13.

  (C) The failure to harness the power of self-interest is an important reason that state-owned industries perform poorly.

  (D) Governments that want to implement14 privatization programs must try to eliminate all resistance to the free-market system.
(E) The individual shareholder2 will reap only a minute share of the gains from whatever sacrifices he or she makes to achieve these gains.

  6. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the privatization process in the United Kingdom?

  (A) It depends to a potentially dangerous degree on individual ownership of shares.

  (B) It conforms in its most general outlines to Thomas Palne's prescription15 for business ownership.

  (C) It was originally conceived to include some giving away of free shares.

  (D) It has been successful, even though privatization has failed in other countries.

  (E) It is taking place more slowly than some economists16 suggest is necessary.

  7. The quotation in line 39 is most probably used to

  (A) counter a position that the author of the passage believes is incorrect

  (B) state a solution to a problem described in the previous sentence

  (C) show how opponents of the viewpoint of the author of the passage have supported their arguments

  (D) point out a paradox contained in a controversial viewpoint

  (E) present a historical maxim to challenge the principle introduced in the third paragraph


1 blueprint 6Rky6     
  • All the machine parts on a blueprint must answer each other.设计图上所有的机器部件都应互相配合。
  • The documents contain a blueprint for a nuclear device.文件内附有一张核装置的设计蓝图。
2 shareholder VzPwU     
  • The account department have prepare a financial statement for the shareholder.财务部为股东准备了一份财务报表。
  • A shareholder may transfer his shares in accordance with the law.股东持有的股份可以依法转让。
3 shareholders 7d3b0484233cf39bc3f4e3ebf97e69fe     
n.股东( shareholder的名词复数 )
  • The meeting was attended by 90% of shareholders. 90%的股东出席了会议。
  • the company's fiduciary duty to its shareholders 公司对股东负有的受托责任
4 negotiations af4b5f3e98e178dd3c4bac64b625ecd0     
协商( negotiation的名词复数 ); 谈判; 完成(难事); 通过
  • negotiations for a durable peace 为持久和平而进行的谈判
  • Negotiations have failed to establish any middle ground. 谈判未能达成任何妥协。
5 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
6 inevitable 5xcyq     
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
7 deterrence d230b01f8463627e6282c5e0e4f1c166     
威慑,制止; 制止物,制止因素; 挽留的事物; 核威慑
  • An extreme school of "disarmers" pronounced stable deterrence was a dangerous deception. “裁军论者”中的极端派声称,稳定的威摄是一种危险的骗局。
  • Escalation is thus an aspect of deterrence and of crisis management. 因此逐步升级是威慑和危机处理的一个方面。
8 eligible Cq6xL     
  • He is an eligible young man.他是一个合格的年轻人。
  • Helen married an eligible bachelor.海伦嫁给了一个中意的单身汉。
9 eligibility xqXxL     
  • What are the eligibility requirements? 病人被选参加试验的要求是什么? 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 回顾与展望
  • Eligibility for HINARI access is based on gross national income (GNI). 进入HINARI获取计划是依据国民总收入来评定的。
10 contingent Jajyi     
  • The contingent marched in the direction of the Western Hills.队伍朝西山的方向前进。
  • Whether or not we arrive on time is contingent on the weather.我们是否按时到达要视天气情况而定。
11 abdicated 0bad74511c43ab3a11217d68c9ad162b     
放弃(职责、权力等)( abdicate的过去式和过去分词 ); 退位,逊位
  • He abdicated in favour of his son. 他把王位让给了儿子。
  • King Edward Ⅷ abdicated in 1936 to marry a commoner. 国王爱德华八世于1936年退位与一个平民结婚。
12 guardian 8ekxv     
  • The form must be signed by the child's parents or guardian. 这张表格须由孩子的家长或监护人签字。
  • The press is a guardian of the public weal. 报刊是公共福利的卫护者。
13 subsidies 84c7dc8329c19e43d3437248757e572c     
n.补贴,津贴,补助金( subsidy的名词复数 )
  • European agriculture ministers failed to break the deadlock over farm subsidies. 欧洲各国农业部长在农业补贴问题上未能打破僵局。
  • Agricultural subsidies absorb about half the EU's income. 农业补贴占去了欧盟收入的大约一半。 来自《简明英汉词典》
14 implement WcdzG     
  • Don't undertake a project unless you can implement it.不要承担一项计划,除非你能完成这项计划。
  • The best implement for digging a garden is a spade.在花园里挖土的最好工具是铁锹。
15 prescription u1vzA     
  • The physician made a prescription against sea- sickness for him.医生给他开了个治晕船的药方。
  • The drug is available on prescription only.这种药只能凭处方购买。
16 economists 2ba0a36f92d9c37ef31cc751bca1a748     
n.经济学家,经济专家( economist的名词复数 )
  • The sudden rise in share prices has confounded economists. 股价的突然上涨使经济学家大惑不解。
  • Foreign bankers and economists cautiously welcomed the minister's initiative. 外国银行家和经济学家对部长的倡议反应谨慎。 来自《简明英汉词典》