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As the economic role of multinational1, global corpora- tions expands, the international economic environment will be shaped increasingly not by governments or international institutions, but by the interaction between governments (5) and global corporations, especially in the United States, Europe, and Japan. A significant factor in this shifting world economy is the trend toward regional trading biocs of nations, which has a potentially large effect on the evolution of the world trading system. Two examples of (10) this trend are the United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and Europe 1992, the move by the European Community (EC) to dismantle2 impediments to the free flow of goods, services, capital, and labor3 among member states by the end of 1992. However, although (15) numerous political and economic factors were operative in launching the move to integrate the EC's markets, concern about protectionism within the EC does not appear to have been a major consideration. This is in sharp contrast to the FTA, the overwhelming reason for that bilateral4 initiative (20) was fear of increasing United States protectionism. None- theless, although markedly different in origin and nature, both regional developments are highly significant in that they will foster integration5 in the two largest and richest markets of the world, as well as provoke questions (25) about the future direction of the world trading system.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to

  (A) describe an initiative and propose its continuance

  (B) chronicle a development and illustrate6 its inconsistencies

  (C) identify a trend and suggest its importance

  (D) summarize a process and question its significance

  (E) report a phenomenon and outline its probable future

  2. According to the passage, all of the following are elements of the shifting world economy EXCEPT
    (A) an alteration7 in the role played by governments

  (B) an increase in interaction between national governments and international regulatory institutions

  (C) an increase in the formation of multinational trading alliances

  (D) an increase in integration in the two richest markets of the world

  (E) a fear of increasing United States protectionism

  3. The passage suggests which of the following about global corporations?

  (A) Their continued growth depends on the existence of a fully8 integrated international market.

  (B) Their potential effect on the world market is a matter of ongoing9 concern to international institutions.

  (C) They will have to assume quasi-governmental functions if current economic trends continue.

  (D) They have provided a model of economic success for regional trading blocs11.

  (E) Their influence on world economics will continue to increase

4. According to the passage, one similarity between the FTA and Europe 1992 is that they both

  (A) overcame concerns about the role of politics in the shifting world economy

  (B) originated out of concern over unfair trade practices by other nations

  (C) exemplify a trend toward regionalization of commercial markets.

  (D) place the economic needs of the trading bloc10 ahead of those of the member nations

  (E) help to ensure the continued economic viability12 of the world community

  5. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the European Community prior to the adoption13 of the Europe 1992 program?

  (A) There were restrictions14 on commerce between the member nations.

  (B) The economic policies of the member nations focused on global trading issues.
(C) There were few impediments to trade between the member nations and the United States.

  (D) The flow of goods between the member nations and Canada was insignificant15.

  (E) Relations between multinational corporations and the governments of the member nations were strained.

  6. The author discusses the FTA and Europe 1992 most likely in order to

  (A) point out the similarities between two seemingly disparate trading alliances

  (B) illustrate how different economic motivations produce different types of trading blocs

  (C) provide contrasting examples of a trend that is influencing the world economy

  (D) identify the most important characteristics of successful economic integration

  (E) trace the history of regional trading blocs

  7. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?

  (A) An argument is put forth16 and evidence for and against it given.

  (B) An assertion is made and opposing evidence presented.

  (C) Two hypotheses are described and shown to inconsistent with one another.

  (D) A phenomenon is identified and illustrations of this phenomenon offered.

  (E) A specific case of a phenomenon is discussed a generalization drawn


1 multinational FnrzdL     
  • The firm was taken over by a multinational consulting firm.这家公司被一个跨国咨询公司收购。
  • He analyzed the relationship between multinational corporations and under-developed countries.他分析了跨国公司和不发达国家之间的关系。
2 dismantle Vtlxa     
  • He asked for immediate help from the United States to dismantle the warheads.他请求美国立即提供援助,拆除这批弹头。
  • The mower firmly refused to mow,so I decided to dismantle it.修完后割草机还是纹丝不动,于是,我决定把它拆开。
3 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
4 bilateral dQGyW     
  • They have been negotiating a bilateral trade deal.他们一直在商谈一项双边贸易协定。
  • There was a wide gap between the views of the two statesmen on the bilateral cooperation.对双方合作的问题,两位政治家各自所持的看法差距甚大。
5 integration G5Pxk     
  • We are working to bring about closer political integration in the EU.我们正在努力实现欧盟內部更加紧密的政治一体化。
  • This was the greatest event in the annals of European integration.这是欧洲统一史上最重大的事件。
6 illustrate IaRxw     
  • The company's bank statements illustrate its success.这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。
  • This diagram will illustrate what I mean.这个图表可说明我的意思。
7 alteration rxPzO     
  • The shirt needs alteration.这件衬衣需要改一改。
  • He easily perceived there was an alteration in my countenance.他立刻看出我的脸色和往常有些不同。
8 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
9 ongoing 6RvzT     
  • The problem is ongoing.这个问题尚未解决。
  • The issues raised in the report relate directly to Age Concern's ongoing work in this area.报告中提出的问题与“关心老人”组织在这方面正在做的工作有直接的关系。
10 bloc RxFzsg;联盟
  • A solid bloc of union members support the decision.工会会员团结起来支持该决定。
  • There have been growing tensions within the trading bloc.贸易同盟国的关系越来越紧张。
11 blocs 55a7aa3ddaadcaa0cc9b6846807efb62,联盟( bloc的名词复数 )
  • The division of Europe into warring blocs produces ever-increasing centrifugal stress. 把欧洲分为作战集团产生了越来越大的离心效果。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The policy of the two blocs was played out. 把世界分为两个集团的政策已经过时了。 来自辞典例句
12 viability FiHwY     
  • What is required to achieve or maintain such viability? 要达到或维持这种生存能力需要什么?
  • Scientists are experimenting to find ways to ensure the viability of seeds for even longer periods of time. 正如我们所说,科学家正在试验努力寻找让种子的生命力更加延长的方法。
13 adoption UK7yu     
  • An adoption agency had sent the boys to two different families.一个收养机构把他们送给两个不同的家庭。
  • The adoption of this policy would relieve them of a tremendous burden.采取这一政策会给他们解除一个巨大的负担。
14 restrictions 81e12dac658cfd4c590486dd6f7523cf     
约束( restriction的名词复数 ); 管制; 制约因素; 带限制性的条件(或规则)
  • I found the restrictions irksome. 我对那些限制感到很烦。
  • a snaggle of restrictions 杂乱无章的种种限制
15 insignificant k6Mx1     
  • In winter the effect was found to be insignificant.在冬季,这种作用是不明显的。
  • This problem was insignificant compared to others she faced.这一问题与她面临的其他问题比较起来算不得什么。
16 forth Hzdz2     
  • The wind moved the trees gently back and forth.风吹得树轻轻地来回摇晃。
  • He gave forth a series of works in rapid succession.他很快连续发表了一系列的作品。