Indian language and literature 印度的语言与文学
文章来源:未知 文章作者:meng 发布时间:2010-04-29 01:55 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

One of the earliest known writing systems came from India, probably around 2500 BC. Unfortunately, we can't read the Harappan(哈拉帕的) writing yet. But we know people were using this writing to mark their property, so other people couldn’t steal it, and to keep track of(记录,保持联系) things. The writing was in pictographs(象形字) , like Egyptian hieroglyphs1(象形文字,图画文字) .

After the Aryan(雅利安人) invasion, about 1500 BC, the Harappan writing was forgotten, and nobody in India could write at all for the next thousand years.

When people did start to write again, around 500 BC, it may have been an idea they got from seeing Persians(波斯人) write. But the Indians did not use Persian script(手迹,脚本) . Instead, they used an alphabetic2 writing(字母文字,拼音文字) called Sanskrit. One of the first things they wrote down was a poem called the Rig Veda(梨俱吠陀经) . There were three other Vedas as well but they are less famous. They also wrote down the Upanishads, which are commentaries(注释,评注) and explanations of the Vedas.

Around 300 BC, people wrote down the Ramayana, a long story about Prince Rama and his wife Sita. And they also wrote down the Mahabharata. Part of the Mahabharata is the Bhagavad Gita, a lot of advice about the law and how people should behave.

About the same time, people began to collect traditional stories called Jataka tales and write them down too. Most of these stories have a lesson or a moral: they are the origins of the English stories of Chicken Little and the Goose that Laid the Golden Egg and many others. Many of the Greek stories we know as Aesop's Fables3 also come from older Jataka tales.


1 hieroglyphs d786aaeff706af6b7c986fbf102e0c8a     
n.象形字(如古埃及等所用的)( hieroglyph的名词复数 );秘密的或另有含意的书写符号
  • Hieroglyphs are carved into the walls of the temple. 寺庙的墙壁上刻着象形文字。 来自辞典例句
  • This paper discusses the fundamental distinctions between the hieroglyphs andforerunner of writing. 英汉象形文字的比较是建立在象形文字具体内涵的基础上。 来自互联网
2 alphabetic zz6z0m     
  • A generic name for a device that can store and process numeric and alphabetic in formation. 能存储和处理数字与字母信息的设备的总称。 来自辞典例句
  • A coded character set whose character set is an alphabetic character set. 一种编码字符集,它的字符集是一种字母字符集。 来自互联网
3 fables c7e1f2951baeedb04670ded67f15ca7b     
n.寓言( fable的名词复数 );神话,传说
  • Some of Aesop's Fables are satires. 《伊索寓言》中有一些是讽刺作品。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
  • Little Mexican boys also breathe the American fables. 墨西哥族的小孩子对美国神话也都耳濡目染。 来自辞典例句
TAG标签: India language literature