蚂蚁体色体型受环境影响很大
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2016-12-10 08:24 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
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A University of Liverpool study of ants across three continents has revealed that their colour and size is strongly influenced by their environment, and that the dominant1 colour and average body size can change from year to year as temperatures vary. This finding has implications for how ant communities will cope with rising global temperatures. Ants are ectotherms and so rely on the temperature of their surrounding environment to control their metabolic2 activity. Previous studies from individual locations or single species have found that larger bodied ectotherms with dark colouration do well in cold places. Large bodies retain heat whilst dark colours help individuals to gain heat quicker than their paler counterparts do. Combined, these two traits are highly beneficial as they allow ectothermic individuals to forage3 and remain active for longer even under cool conditions. 
 
Researchers at the University's School of Environmental Sciences wanted to test whether these ideas of ectotherm thermoregulation held across species and at large geographic4 scales. They collected and analysed information on the abundance, body size and colour of ants on 14 different mountains from locations in South Africa, South America and Australia. Some of the sites were sampled repeatedly for up to seven years. This diversity of elevations5 and latitudes6 provided a huge range of external ambient temperatures (from 0.5 to 35°C).
 
They found that the colder the external temperature is, the larger and darker ants were, and vice7 versa. Consequently, communities of ants in sites closer to the South Pole or near the tops of mountains, where it was colder, would tend to be dominated by dark and large bodied ants. In warmer places the ant species were smaller and lighter8 in colour. 
 
They also found that this effect depended on the amount of UV-B radiation present at the sites. Melanin, the pigment9 which makes ants darker, also protects against harmful UV-B rays. It effectively acts as a sunblock. This caused ants in the central Australian desert to be dark in order to counter the extremely high UV-B radiation. Ordinarily, the ants here should have been pale to reflect the harsh desert sun.


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1 dominant usAxG     
adj.支配的,统治的;占优势的;显性的;n.主因,要素,主要的人(或物);显性基因
参考例句:
  • The British were formerly dominant in India.英国人从前统治印度。
  • She was a dominant figure in the French film industry.她在法国电影界是个举足轻重的人物。
2 metabolic 2R4z1     
adj.新陈代谢的
参考例句:
  • Impressive metabolic alternations have been undergone during embryogenesis.在胚胎发生期间经历了深刻的代谢变化。
  • A number of intoxicants are associated with metabolic acidosis.许多毒性物质可引起代谢性酸中毒。
3 forage QgyzP     
n.(牛马的)饲料,粮草;v.搜寻,翻寻
参考例句:
  • They were forced to forage for clothing and fuel.他们不得不去寻找衣服和燃料。
  • Now the nutritive value of the forage is reduced.此时牧草的营养价值也下降了。
4 geographic tgsxb     
adj.地理学的,地理的
参考例句:
  • The city's success owes much to its geographic position. 这座城市的成功很大程度上归功于它的地理位置。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Environmental problems pay no heed to these geographic lines. 环境问题并不理会这些地理界限。 来自英汉非文学 - 环境法 - 环境法
5 elevations cb4bbe1b6e824c996fd92d711884a9f2     
(水平或数量)提高( elevation的名词复数 ); 高地; 海拔; 提升
参考例句:
  • Weight of the crust changes as elevations are eroded and materials are deposited elsewhere. 当高地受到侵蚀,物质沉积到别的地方时,地壳的重量就改变。
  • All deck elevations are on the top of structural beams. 所有甲板标高线均指结构梁顶线。
6 latitudes 90df39afd31b3508eb257043703bc0f3     
纬度
参考例句:
  • Latitudes are the lines that go from east to west. 纬线是从东到西的线。
  • It was the brief Indian Summer of the high latitudes. 这是高纬度地方的那种短暂的晚秋。
7 vice NU0zQ     
n.坏事;恶习;[pl.]台钳,老虎钳;adj.副的
参考例句:
  • He guarded himself against vice.他避免染上坏习惯。
  • They are sunk in the depth of vice.他们堕入了罪恶的深渊。
8 lighter 5pPzPR     
n.打火机,点火器;驳船;v.用驳船运送;light的比较级
参考例句:
  • The portrait was touched up so as to make it lighter.这张画经过润色,色调明朗了一些。
  • The lighter works off the car battery.引燃器利用汽车蓄电池打火。
9 pigment gi0yg     
n.天然色素,干粉颜料
参考例句:
  • The Romans used natural pigments on their fabrics and walls.古罗马人在织物和墙壁上使用天然颜料。
  • Who thought he might know what the skin pigment phenomenon meant.他自认为可能知道皮肤色素出现这种现象到底是怎么回事。
TAG标签: body ant species
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