文章来源: 文章作者: 发布时间:2008-10-31 05:14 字体: [ ]  进入论坛

Text 3

  Greek mythology1 is largely made up of stories about gods and goddesses, but it must not be read as a kind of Greek Bible, an account of the Greek religion.

  According to the most modern idea, a real myth has nothing to do with religion. It is an explanation of something in nature; how, for instance, any and everything in the universe came into existence: men, animals, this or that tree or flower, the sun, the moon, the stars, storms, eruptions2, earthquakes, all that is and all that happens. Thunder and lightning are caused when Zeus hurls3 his thunderbolt. A volcano erupts because a terrible creature is imprisoned4 in the mountain and every now and then struggles to get free. The Dipper ( 大熊星座) , the constellation5 ( 星座) called also the Great Bear, does not set below the horizon because a goddess once was angry at it and decreed (命令 ) that it should never sink into the sea. Myths are early science, the result of men's first trying to explain what they saw around them.

  But there are many so-called myths which explain nothing at all. These tales are pure entertainment, the sort of thing people would tell each other on a long winter's evening. The story of Pygmalion (皮格马利翁) and Galatea is an example; it has no conceivable connection with any event in nature. Neither has the Quest of the Golden Fleece (寻找金羊毛) , nor Orpheus (奥菲士,竖琴圣手) and Eurydice, nor many another. This fact is now generally accepted; and we do not have to try to find in every mythological6 heroine the moon or the dawn and in every hero's life a sun myth. The stories are early literature as well as early science. But religion is there, too. In the background, to be sure, but nevertheless plain to see. From Homer through the tragedians and even later, there is a deepening realization7 of what human beings need and what they must have in their gods.

  56. The author believes that myths __________.

  [ A ] have nothing to do with religion

  [ B ] contain very modern ideas

  [ C ] are pure entertainment with no religious content

  [ D ] have to do with science, religion and entertainment

  57. In every myth, _________.

  [ A ] there is a connection with some natural event

  [ B ] there is not necessarily an attempt to explain an event in nature

  [ C ] there are angry gods and goddesses

  [ D ] there exists some religious teaching

  58. According to the passage, the story of Pygmalion and Galatea _________.

  [A] has something to do with the explanation of nature

  [B] is pure entertainment

  [ C ] has something to do with science

  [D] is closely related to religion

  59. Myths are early science because they __________.

  [ A ] explain the natural events

  [ B ] teach about the history

  [ C ] have nothing to do with religion

  [ D ] reflect people's expectations

  60. The author, in regard to modern ideas on myth _________.

  [A] is impressed and agrees with them

  [ B ] refuses to accept any of them

  [ C ] adds to them new points of view

  [ D ] none of the above

  Part B


  Read the following article in which five people talk about their ideas of education. For questions 61 to 65, match name of each speaker to one of the statements (A to G) given below. Mark your answers on your ANSWER SHEET.


  I think it's a great shame people don't learn anything today. I mean, good heavens, when you think of all the millions of pounds the Government have spent on education-new schools, more teachers, new equipment. And yet still you find people who can't read properly, can't even write their names and don't know what two and two is without a calculator. I think it's downright disgraceful. I remember when I was young you went to school to learn. You did as you were told and respected your teachers. Nowadays you get long-haired kids who aren't interested in anything. No wonder they don't learn anything.


  Well, there are a lot of different views on this, but I think it is probably wrong to imagine that there was some golden age in the past when everything was perfect. It all depends, of course, on what you measure and how you measure it. It may surprise some people that there has not been an obvious and dramatic increase in the standard of education, given the vast amounts of money spent in this area by successive governments in recent years. But unfortunately, most improvements in education are intangible.


  Well, if you asked me, it's all these modern methods that is the problem. In the old days you sat in rows at desks and you did as you were told. You knew that you had to do and you did it-and you kept quiet. Nowadays, my god, the noise in most schools is deafening8 especially primary schools. The children wander around-do more or less what they want to as far as I can see. The teacher just sits there or wanders around with them, talking to them. Informal teaching they call it. Discovery methods. Sounds more like a recipe for discovering disaster to me.


  Many people talk about how to improve education and a lot suggest raising the salaries of teachers and professors. Of course, this is very important to education. However, increasing the salary of teachers is just one way to improve education. It will not work without the cooperation of the other determinants, such as student's love of knowledge and reading. Even if the teachers are devoted9, it will make no sense if the students are not willing to learn.


  The criticism that what students learn today is not adapted to present-day society is utterly10 wrong because education can never be seen only in terms of how useful the subjects are when students leave school. We ought to evaluate education in terms of how much the students enjoy those subjects and how much they mean to those students. Instead of being trained to be utilitarian11, students should be encouraged to do things for their own sake, and study what they are interested in.

  Now match each of the persons to the appropriate statement.

  Note: there are two extra statements.


  61. Alien [A] Education is a gradual extension of oneself.

  [B] Students should get satisfaction out of education.

  62. Martha [C] Education standards are higher than in the past.

  [ D ] Education involves learning as well as teaching.

  63. Pritt [E] Many students are spoilt by our present-day educational system.

  64. Symons [F] Schools should emphasize practical skills.

  65. Wilbert [G] Educational standards are declining.



1 mythology I6zzV     
  • In Greek mythology,Zeus was the ruler of Gods and men.在希腊神话中,宙斯是众神和人类的统治者。
  • He is the hero of Greek mythology.他是希腊民间传说中的英雄。
2 eruptions ca60b8eba3620efa5cdd7044f6dd0b66     
n.喷发,爆发( eruption的名词复数 )
  • There have been several volcanic eruptions this year. 今年火山爆发了好几次。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Over 200 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions. 火山喷发已导致200多人丧生。 来自辞典例句
3 hurls 5c1d67ad9c4d25e912ac98bafae95fe3     
v.猛投,用力掷( hurl的第三人称单数 );大声叫骂
  • Jane really hurls herself into learning any new song, doesn't she? 对任何新歌,简都会一心一意去学,对吗? 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The necromancer hurls a bolt of dark energies against his enemies. 亡灵法师向对手射出一道带着黑暗能量的影束。 来自互联网
4 imprisoned bc7d0bcdd0951055b819cfd008ef0d8d     
下狱,监禁( imprison的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He was imprisoned for two concurrent terms of 30 months and 18 months. 他被判处30个月和18个月的监禁,合并执行。
  • They were imprisoned for possession of drugs. 他们因拥有毒品而被监禁。
5 constellation CptzI     
  • A constellation is a pattern of stars as seen from the earth. 一个星座只是从地球上看到的某些恒星的一种样子。
  • The Big Dipper is not by itself a constellation. 北斗七星本身不是一个星座。
6 mythological BFaxL     
  • He is remembered for his historical and mythological works. 他以其带有历史感和神话色彩的作品而著称。
  • But even so, the cumulative process had for most Americans a deep, almost mythological significance. 不过即使如此,移民渐增的过程,对于大部分美国人,还是意味深长的,几乎有不可思议的影响。
7 realization nTwxS     
  • We shall gladly lend every effort in our power toward its realization.我们将乐意为它的实现而竭尽全力。
  • He came to the realization that he would never make a good teacher.他逐渐认识到自己永远不会成为好老师。
8 deafening deafening     
adj. 振耳欲聋的, 极喧闹的 动词deafen的现在分词形式
  • The noise of the siren was deafening her. 汽笛声震得她耳朵都快聋了。
  • The noise of the machine was deafening. 机器的轰鸣声震耳欲聋。
9 devoted xu9zka     
  • He devoted his life to the educational cause of the motherland.他为祖国的教育事业贡献了一生。
  • We devoted a lengthy and full discussion to this topic.我们对这个题目进行了长时间的充分讨论。
10 utterly ZfpzM1     
  • Utterly devoted to the people,he gave his life in saving his patients.他忠于人民,把毕生精力用于挽救患者的生命。
  • I was utterly ravished by the way she smiled.她的微笑使我完全陶醉了。
11 utilitarian THVy9     
  • On the utilitarian side American education has outstridden the rest of the world.在实用方面美国教育已超越世界各国。
  • A good cloth coat is more utilitarian than a fur one.一件优质的布外衣要比一件毛皮外衣更有用。