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Passage 43

  Historians of women‘s labor1 in the United States at first largely disregarded the story of female service workers-women earning wages in occupations such as salesclerk.domestic servant, and office secretary. These historians(5) focused instead on factory work,primarily because it seemed so different from traditional,unpaid2 “women’s  work” in the home,and because the underlying3 economic forces of industrialism were presumed to be gender-blind  and hence emancipatory4 in effect. Unfortunately, emanci-(10)pation has been less profound than expected, for not even  industrial wage labor has escaped continued sex segre-gation in the workplace.
  To explain this unfinished revolution in the status of women,historians have recently begun to emphasize the( 15) way a prevailing5 definition of femininity often etermines the kinds of work allocated6 to women,even when such  allocation is inappropriate to new conditions. For instance,early textile-mill entrepreneurs,in justifying7 women‘s  employment in wage labor, made much of the assumption(20)that women were by nature skillful at detailed8 tasks and  patient in carrying out repetitive chores;the mill owners thus imported into the new industrial order hoary9 stereo-  types associated with the homemaking activities they presumed to have been the purview10 of women. Because(25) women accepted the more unattractive new industrial tasks more readily than did men,such jobs came to be regarded as female jobs. And employers,who assumed that women’s “real” aspirations11 were for marriage and family life.  declined to pay women wages commensurate with those of(30)men. Thus many lower-skilled,lower-paid,less secure jobs came to be perceived as “female.”
  More remarkable12 than the origin has been the persistence13 of such sex segregation14 in twentieth-century industry. Once an occupation came to be perceived as “female.” employers(35)showed surprisingly little interest in changing that perception, even when higher profits beckoned15. And despite the urgent need of the United States during the Second World War to mobilize its human resources fully,job segregation by sex characterized even the most important40)war industries. Moreover,once the war ended,employers quickly returned to men most of the “male” jobs that women had been permitted to master.

  1. According to the passage, job segregation by sex in the United States was
   (A) greatly diminlated by labor mobilization during the Second World War
   (B) perpetuated16 by those textile-mill owners who argued in favor of women‘s employment in wage labor
   (C) one means by which women achieved greater job security
   (D) reluctantly challenged by employers except when the economic advantages were obvious
   (E) a constant source of labor unrest in the young textile industry

  2. According to the passage, historians of women‘s labor focused on factory work as a more promising17 area of research than service-sector18 work because factory work
   (A) involved the payment of higher wages
   (B) required skill in detailed tasks
   (C) was assumed to be less characterized by sex segregation
   (D) was more readily accepted by women than by men
   (E) fitted the economic dynamic of industrialism better

  3. It can be inferred from the passage that early historians of women‘s labor in the United States paid little attention to women’s employment in the service sector of the economy because
   (A) the extreme variety of these occupations made it very difficult to assemble meaningful statistics about them
   (B) fewer women found employment in the service sector than in factory work
   (C) the wages paid to workers in the service sector were much lower than those paid in the industrial sector
   (D) women‘s employment in the service sector tended to be much more short-term than in factory work
   (E) employment in the service sector seemed to have much in common with the unpaid work associated with homemaking

  4. The passage supports which of the following statements about the early mill owners mentioned in the second paragraph?
   (A) They hoped that by creating relatively19 unattractive “female” jobs they would discourage women from losing interest in marriage and family life.
   (B) They sought to increase the size of the available labor force as a means to keep men‘s to keep men’s  wages low.
   (C) They argued that women were inherently suited to do well in particular kinds of factory work.
   (D) They thought that factory work bettered the condition of women by emancipating20 them from dependence21 on income earned by men.
   (E) They felt guilty about disturbing the traditional division of labor in family.

  5. It can be inferred from the passage that the “unfinished revolution” the author mentions in line 13 refers to the
   (A) entry of women into the industrial labor market
   (B) recognition that work done by women as homemakers should be compensated22 at rates comparable to those prevailing in the service sector of the economy
   (C) development of a new definition of femininity unrelated to the economic forces of industrialism
   (D) introduction of equal pay for equal work in all professions
   (E) emancipation23 of women wage earners from gender-determined job allocation

  6. The passage supports which of the following statements about hiring policies in the United States?
   (A) After a crisis many formerly24 “male” jobs are reclassified as “female” jobs.
   (B) Industrial employers generally prefer to hire women  with previous experience as homemakers.
   (C) Post-Second World War hiring policies caused women to lose many of their wartime gains in employment opportunity.
   (D) Even war industries during the Second World War were reluctant to hire women for factory work.
   (E) The service sector of the economy has proved more nearly gender-blind in its hiring policies than has the manufacturing sector.

  7. Which of the following words best expresses the opinion of the author of the passage concerning the notion that women are more skillful than men in carrying out detailed tasks?
   (A) “patient” (line 21)
   (B) “repetitive” (line 21)
   (C) “hoary” (line 22)
   (D) “homemaking” (line 23)
   (E) “purview” (line 24)

  8. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the final paragraph to the passage as a whole? 
   (A) The central idea is reinforced by the citation25 of evidence drawn26 from twentieth-century history.
   (B) The central idea is restated in such a way as to form a transition to a new topic for discussion.
   (C) The central idea is restated and juxtaposed with evidence that might appear to contradic it.
   (D) A partial exception to the generalizations27 of the central idea is dismissed as unimportant.
   (E) Recent history is cited to suggest that the central idea‘s validity is gradually diminishing.


1 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
2 unpaid fjEwu     
  • Doctors work excessive unpaid overtime.医生过度加班却无报酬。
  • He's doing a month's unpaid work experience with an engineering firm.他正在一家工程公司无偿工作一个月以获得工作经验。
3 underlying 5fyz8c     
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
4 emancipatory fef7d41ae6ab52ca5faeb3b51c0a7f01     
  • Its are main experience and practice: One, emancipatory thought, change idea. 其主要经验和做法:一、解放思想,转变观念。 来自互联网
  • Teacher Professional Development: From "Technical Interest" to "Emancipatory Interest " 教师专业发展:从“技术兴趣”到“解放兴趣” 来自互联网
5 prevailing E1ozF     
  • She wears a fashionable hair style prevailing in the city.她的发型是这个城市流行的款式。
  • This reflects attitudes and values prevailing in society.这反映了社会上盛行的态度和价值观。
6 allocated 01868918c8cec5bc8773e98ae11a0f54     
adj. 分配的 动词allocate的过去式和过去分词
  • The Ford Foundation allocated millions of dollars for cancer research. 福特基金会拨款数百万美元用于癌症研究。
  • More funds will now be allocated to charitable organizations. 现在会拨更多的资金给慈善组织。
7 justifying 5347bd663b20240e91345e662973de7a     
证明…有理( justify的现在分词 ); 为…辩护; 对…作出解释; 为…辩解(或辩护)
  • He admitted it without justifying it. 他不加辩解地承认这个想法。
  • The fellow-travellers'service usually consisted of justifying all the tergiversations of Soviet intenal and foreign policy. 同路人的服务通常包括对苏联国内外政策中一切互相矛盾之处进行辩护。
8 detailed xuNzms     
  • He had made a detailed study of the terrain.他对地形作了缜密的研究。
  • A detailed list of our publications is available on request.我们的出版物有一份详细的目录备索。
9 hoary Jc5xt     
  • They discussed the hoary old problem.他们讨论老问题。
  • Without a word spoken,he hurried away,with his hoary head bending low.他什么也没说,低着白发苍苍的头,匆匆地走了。
10 purview HC7yr     
  • These are questions that lie outside the purview of our inquiry.这些都不是属于我们调查范围的问题。
  • That,however,was beyond the purview of the court;it was a diplomatic matter.但是,那已不在法庭权限之内;那是个外交问题。
11 aspirations a60ebedc36cdd304870aeab399069f9e     
强烈的愿望( aspiration的名词复数 ); 志向; 发送气音; 发 h 音
  • I didn't realize you had political aspirations. 我没有意识到你有政治上的抱负。
  • The new treaty embodies the aspirations of most nonaligned countries. 新条约体现了大多数不结盟国家的愿望。
12 remarkable 8Vbx6     
  • She has made remarkable headway in her writing skills.她在写作技巧方面有了长足进步。
  • These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响。
13 persistence hSLzh     
  • The persistence of a cough in his daughter puzzled him.他女儿持续的咳嗽把他难住了。
  • He achieved success through dogged persistence.他靠着坚持不懈取得了成功。
14 segregation SESys     
  • Many school boards found segregation a hot potato in the early 1960s.在60年代初,许多学校部门都觉得按水平分班是一个棘手的问题。
  • They were tired to death of segregation and of being kicked around.他们十分厌恶种族隔离和总是被人踢来踢去。
15 beckoned b70f83e57673dfe30be1c577dd8520bc     
v.(用头或手的动作)示意,召唤( beckon的过去式和过去分词 )
  • He beckoned to the waiter to bring the bill. 他招手示意服务生把账单送过来。
  • The seated figure in the corner beckoned me over. 那个坐在角落里的人向我招手让我过去。 来自《简明英汉词典》
16 perpetuated ca69e54073d3979488ad0a669192bc07     
  • This system perpetuated itself for several centuries. 这一制度维持了几个世纪。
  • I never before saw smile caught like that, and perpetuated. 我从来没有看见过谁的笑容陷入这样的窘况,而且持续不变。 来自辞典例句
17 promising BkQzsk     
  • The results of the experiments are very promising.实验的结果充满了希望。
  • We're trying to bring along one or two promising young swimmers.我们正设法培养出一两名有前途的年轻游泳选手。
18 sector yjczYn     
  • The export sector will aid the economic recovery. 出口产业将促进经济复苏。
  • The enemy have attacked the British sector.敌人已进攻英国防区。
19 relatively bkqzS3     
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
20 emancipating 1780fcd67a8dbe796f00c235492ec020     
v.解放某人(尤指摆脱政治、法律或社会的束缚)( emancipate的现在分词 )
  • Innovation requires emancipating our minds, seeking truth from facts and keeping pace with the times. 创新就要不断解放思想、实事求是、与时俱进。 来自汉英非文学 - 十六大报告
  • The harmonious society is important content of Marx's mankind emancipating thought. 和谐社会是马克思人类解放思想中的重要内容。 来自互联网
21 dependence 3wsx9     
  • Doctors keep trying to break her dependence of the drug.医生们尽力使她戒除毒瘾。
  • He was freed from financial dependence on his parents.他在经济上摆脱了对父母的依赖。
22 compensated 0b0382816fac7dbf94df37906582be8f     
补偿,报酬( compensate的过去式和过去分词 ); 给(某人)赔偿(或赔款)
  • The marvelous acting compensated for the play's weak script. 本剧的精彩表演弥补了剧本的不足。
  • I compensated his loss with money. 我赔偿他经济损失。
23 emancipation Sjlzb     
  • We must arouse them to fight for their own emancipation. 我们必须唤起他们为其自身的解放而斗争。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • They rejoiced over their own emancipation. 他们为自己的解放感到欢欣鼓舞。 来自《简明英汉词典》
24 formerly ni3x9     
  • We now enjoy these comforts of which formerly we had only heard.我们现在享受到了过去只是听说过的那些舒适条件。
  • This boat was formerly used on the rivers of China.这船从前航行在中国内河里。
25 citation 1qyzo     
  • He had to sign the proposition for the citation.他只好在受奖申请书上签了字。
  • The court could issue a citation and fine Ms. Robbins.法庭可能会发传票,对罗宾斯女士处以罚款。
26 drawn MuXzIi     
  • All the characters in the story are drawn from life.故事中的所有人物都取材于生活。
  • Her gaze was drawn irresistibly to the scene outside.她的目光禁不住被外面的风景所吸引。
27 generalizations 6a32b82d344d5f1487aee703a39bb639     
一般化( generalization的名词复数 ); 普通化; 归纳; 概论
  • But Pearlson cautions that the findings are simply generalizations. 但是波尔森提醒人们,这些发现是简单的综合资料。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 大脑与疾病
  • They were of great service in correcting my jejune generalizations. 他们纠正了我不成熟的泛泛之论,帮了我大忙。