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Passage 40

  Joseph Glarthaar‘s Forged in Battle is not the first excel-lent study of Black soldiers and their White officers in the Civil War, but it uses more soldiers’ letters and diaries- including rare material from Black soldiers-and concen-(5) rates more intensely on Black-White relations in Black regiments1 than do any of its predecessors2. Glathaar‘s title expresses his thesis: loyalty3, friendship, and respect among White officers and Black soldiers were fostered by the mutual4 dangers they faced in combat.
  (10 ) Glarthaar accurately5 describes the government‘s discrim-inatory treatment of Black soldiers in pay, promotion6, medi cal care, and job assignments, appropriately emphasizing the campaign by Black soldiers and their officers to get the opportunity to fight. That chance remained limited through(15) out the war by army policies that kept most Black units serving in rear-echelon assignments and working in labor7 battalions8. Thus, while their combat death rate was only one-third that of White units, their mortality rate from disease, a major killer9 in his war, was twice as great.
  (20) Despite these obstacles, the courage and effectiveness of several Black units in combat won increasing respect from  initially10 skeptical11 or hostile White soldiers. As one White officer put it,“they have fought their way into the respectof all the army.”
  (25) In trying to demonstrate the magnitude of this attitudi-nal change, however,Glarthaar seems to exaggerate the prewar racism12 of the White men who became officers in Black regiments. “Prior to the war,” he writes of thesemen,“virtually all of them held powerful racial prejudices.”(30) While perhaps true of those officers who joined Black units for promotion or other self-serving motives13, this state-ment misrepresents the attitudes of the many abolitionists who became officers in Black regiments. Having spent years fighting against the race prejudice endemic in Ameri-(35)can society; they participated eagerly in this military exper-iment, which they hoped would help African Americansachieve freedom and postwar civil equality. By currentstandards of racial egalitarianism, these men‘s paternalismtoward African Americans was racist14. But to call their(40)feelings “powerful racial prejudices” is to indulge ingenerational chauvinism-to judge past eras by presentstandards.

  1. The passage as a whole can best be characterized as which of the following?
   (A) An evaluation15 of a scholarly study
   (B) A description of an attitudinal change
   (C) A discussion of an analytical16 defect
   (D) An analysis of the causes of a phenomenon
   (E) An argument in favor of revising a view

  2. According to the author, which of the following is true of Glarthaar‘s Forged in Battle compared with previous studies on the same topic?
   (A) It is more reliable and presents a more complete picture of the historical events on which it concentrates than do previous studies.
   (B) It uses more of a particular kind of source material and focuses more closely on a particular aspect of the topic than do previous studies.
   (C) It contains some unsupported generalizations17, but it rightly emphasizes a theme ignored by most previous studies.
   (D) It surpasses previous studies on the same topic in that it accurately describes conditions often neglected by those studies.
   (E) It makes skillful use of supporting evidence to illustrate18 a subtle trend that previous studies have failed to detect.

  3. The author implies that the title of Glatthaar‘s book refers specifically to which of the following?
   (A) The sense of pride and accomplishment19 that Black soldiers increasingly felt as a result of their Civil War experiences
   (B) The civil equality that African Americans achieved after the Civil War, partly as a result of their use of organizational skills honed by combat
   (C) The changes in discriminatory army policies that were made as a direct result of the performance of Black  combat units during the Civil War
   (D) The improved interracial relations that were formed by the races‘ facing of common dangers and their waging of a common fight during the Civil War
   (E) The standards of racial egalitarianism that came to be adopted as a result of White Civil War veterans‘ repudiation20 of the previous racism

  4. The passage mentions which of the following as an important theme that receives special emphasis in Glarthaar‘s book?
   (A) The attitudes of abolitionist officers in Black units
   (B) The struggle of Black units to get combat assignments
   (C) The consequences of the poor medical care received by Black soldiers
   (D) The motives of officers serving in Black units
   (E) The discrimination that Black soldiers faced when trying for promotions21

  5. The passage suggests that which of the following was true of Black units‘ disease mortality rates in the Civil War?
   (A) They were almost as high as the combat mortality rates of White units.
   (B) They resulted in part from the relative inexperience of these units when in combat.
   (C) They were especially high because of the nature of these units‘ usual duty assignments.
   (D) They resulted in extremely high overall casualty rates in Black combat units.
   (E) They exacerbated22 the morale23 problems that were caused by the army‘s discriminatory policies.

  6. The author of the passage quotes the White officer in lines 23-24 primarily in order to provide evidence to support the contention24 that
   (A) virtually all White officers initially had hostile attitudes toward Black soldiers
   (B) Black soldiers were often forced to defend themselves from physical attacks initiated25 by soldiers from White units
   (C) the combat performance of Black units changed the attitudes of White soldiers toward Black soldiers
   (D) White units paid especially careful attention to the performance of Black units in battle
   (E) respect in the army as a whole was accorded only to those units, whether Black or White, that performed well in battle

  7. Which of the following best describes the kind of error attributed to Glarthaar in lines 25-28?
   (A) Insisting on an unwarranted distinction between two groups of individuals in order to render an argument concerning them internally consistent
   (B) Supporting an argument in favor of a given interpretation26 of a situation with evidence that is not particularly relevant to the situation
   (C) Presenting a distorted view of the motives of certain individuals in order to provide grounds for a negative evaluation of their actions
   (D) Describing the conditions prevailing27 before a given event in such a way that the contrast with those prevailing after the event appears more striking than it   actually is
   (E) Asserting that a given event is caused by another event merely because the other event occurred before the given event occurred

  8. Which of the following actions can best be described as indulging in “generational chauvinism”(lines 40-41) as that practice is defined in the passage?
   (A) Condemning28 a present-day monarch29 merely because many monarchs30 have been tyrannical in the past.
   (B) Clinging to the formal standards of politeness common in one‘s youth to such a degree that any relaxation31 of those standards is intolerable
   (C) Questioning the accuracy of a report written by an employee merely because of the employee‘s gender32.
   (D) Deriding33 the superstitions34 accepted as “science” in past eras without acknowledging the prevalence of irrational35 beliefs today.
   (E) Labeling a nineteenth-century politician as “corrupt” for engaging in once-acceptable practices considered intolerable today.


1 regiments 874816ecea99051da3ed7fa13d5fe861     
(军队的)团( regiment的名词复数 ); 大量的人或物
  • The three regiments are all under the command of you. 这三个团全归你节制。
  • The town was garrisoned with two regiments. 该镇有两团士兵驻守。
2 predecessors b59b392832b9ce6825062c39c88d5147     
n.前任( predecessor的名词复数 );前辈;(被取代的)原有事物;前身
  • The new government set about dismantling their predecessors' legislation. 新政府正着手废除其前任所制定的法律。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Will new plan be any more acceptable than its predecessors? 新计划比原先的计划更能令人满意吗? 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 loyalty gA9xu     
  • She told him the truth from a sense of loyalty.她告诉他真相是出于忠诚。
  • His loyalty to his friends was never in doubt.他对朋友的一片忠心从来没受到怀疑。
4 mutual eFOxC     
  • We must pull together for mutual interest.我们必须为相互的利益而通力合作。
  • Mutual interests tied us together.相互的利害关系把我们联系在一起。
5 accurately oJHyf     
  • It is hard to hit the ball accurately.准确地击中球很难。
  • Now scientists can forecast the weather accurately.现在科学家们能准确地预报天气。
6 promotion eRLxn     
  • The teacher conferred with the principal about Dick's promotion.教师与校长商谈了迪克的升级问题。
  • The clerk was given a promotion and an increase in salary.那个职员升了级,加了薪。
7 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
8 battalions 35cfaa84044db717b460d0ff39a7c1bf     
n.(陆军的)一营(大约有一千兵士)( battalion的名词复数 );协同作战的部队;军队;(组织在一起工作的)队伍
  • God is always on the side of the strongest battalions. 上帝总是帮助强者。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Two battalions were disposed for an attack on the air base. 配置两个营的兵力进攻空军基地。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
9 killer rpLziK     
  • Heart attacks have become Britain's No.1 killer disease.心脏病已成为英国的头号致命疾病。
  • The bulk of the evidence points to him as her killer.大量证据证明是他杀死她的。
10 initially 273xZ     
  • The ban was initially opposed by the US.这一禁令首先遭到美国的反对。
  • Feathers initially developed from insect scales.羽毛最初由昆虫的翅瓣演化而来。
11 skeptical MxHwn     
  • Others here are more skeptical about the chances for justice being done.这里的其他人更为怀疑正义能否得到伸张。
  • Her look was skeptical and resigned.她的表情是将信将疑而又无可奈何。
12 racism pSIxZ     
  • He said that racism is endemic in this country.他说种族主义在该国很普遍。
  • Racism causes political instability and violence.种族主义道致政治动荡和暴力事件。
13 motives 6c25d038886898b20441190abe240957     
n.动机,目的( motive的名词复数 )
  • to impeach sb's motives 怀疑某人的动机
  • His motives are unclear. 他的用意不明。
14 racist GSRxZ     
  • a series of racist attacks 一连串的种族袭击行为
  • His speech presented racist ideas under the guise of nationalism. 他的讲话以民族主义为幌子宣扬种族主义思想。
15 evaluation onFxd     
  • I attempted an honest evaluation of my own life.我试图如实地评价我自己的一生。
  • The new scheme is still under evaluation.新方案还在评估阶段。
16 analytical lLMyS     
  • I have an analytical approach to every survey.对每项调查我都采用分析方法。
  • As a result,analytical data obtained by analysts were often in disagreement.结果各个分析家所得的分析数据常常不一致。
17 generalizations 6a32b82d344d5f1487aee703a39bb639     
一般化( generalization的名词复数 ); 普通化; 归纳; 概论
  • But Pearlson cautions that the findings are simply generalizations. 但是波尔森提醒人们,这些发现是简单的综合资料。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 大脑与疾病
  • They were of great service in correcting my jejune generalizations. 他们纠正了我不成熟的泛泛之论,帮了我大忙。
18 illustrate IaRxw     
  • The company's bank statements illustrate its success.这家公司的银行报表说明了它的成功。
  • This diagram will illustrate what I mean.这个图表可说明我的意思。
19 accomplishment 2Jkyo     
  • The series of paintings is quite an accomplishment.这一系列的绘画真是了不起的成就。
  • Money will be crucial to the accomplishment of our objectives.要实现我们的目标,钱是至关重要的。
20 repudiation b333bdf02295537e45f7f523b26d27b3     
  • Datas non-repudiation is very important in the secure communication. 在安全数据的通讯中,数据发送和接收的非否认十分重要。 来自互联网
  • There are some goals of Certified E-mail Protocol: confidentiality non-repudiation and fairness. 挂号电子邮件协议需要具备保密性、不可否认性及公平性。 来自互联网
21 promotions ea6aeb050f871384f25fba9c869cfe21     
促进( promotion的名词复数 ); 提升; 推广; 宣传
  • All services or promotions must have an appeal and wide application. 所有服务或促销工作都必须具有吸引力和广泛的适用性。
  • He promptly directed the highest promotions and decorations for General MacArthur. 他授予麦克阿瑟将军以最高的官阶和勋奖。
22 exacerbated 93c37be5dc6e60a8bbd0f2eab618d2eb     
v.使恶化,使加重( exacerbate的过去式和过去分词 )
  • The symptoms may be exacerbated by certain drugs. 这些症状可能会因为某些药物而加重。
  • The drugs they gave her only exacerbated the pain. 他们给她吃的药只是加重了她的痛楚。 来自《简明英汉词典》
23 morale z6Ez8     
  • The morale of the enemy troops is sinking lower every day.敌军的士气日益低落。
  • He tried to bolster up their morale.他尽力鼓舞他们的士气。
24 contention oZ5yd     
  • The pay increase is the key point of contention. 加薪是争论的焦点。
  • The real bone of contention,as you know,is money.你知道,争论的真正焦点是钱的问题。
25 initiated 9cd5622f36ab9090359c3cf3ca4ddda3     
n. 创始人 adj. 新加入的 vt. 开始,创始,启蒙,介绍加入
  • He has not yet been thoroughly initiated into the mysteries of computers. 他对计算机的奥秘尚未入门。
  • The artist initiated the girl into the art world in France. 这个艺术家介绍这个女孩加入巴黎艺术界。
26 interpretation P5jxQ     
  • His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  • Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
27 prevailing E1ozF     
  • She wears a fashionable hair style prevailing in the city.她的发型是这个城市流行的款式。
  • This reflects attitudes and values prevailing in society.这反映了社会上盛行的态度和价值观。
28 condemning 3c571b073a8d53beeff1e31a57d104c0     
v.(通常因道义上的原因而)谴责( condemn的现在分词 );宣判;宣布…不能使用;迫使…陷于不幸的境地
  • The government issued a statement condemning the killings. 政府发表声明谴责这些凶杀事件。
  • I concur with the speaker in condemning what has been done. 我同意发言者对所做的事加以谴责。 来自《现代英汉综合大词典》
29 monarch l6lzj     
  • The monarch's role is purely ceremonial.君主纯粹是个礼仪职位。
  • I think myself happier now than the greatest monarch upon earth.我觉得这个时候比世界上什么帝王都快乐。
30 monarchs aa0c84cc147684fb2cc83dc453b67686     
君主,帝王( monarch的名词复数 )
  • Monarchs ruled England for centuries. 世袭君主统治英格兰有许多世纪。
  • Serving six monarchs of his native Great Britain, he has served all men's freedom and dignity. 他在大不列颠本国为六位君王服务,也为全人类的自由和尊严服务。 来自演讲部分
31 relaxation MVmxj     
  • The minister has consistently opposed any relaxation in the law.部长一向反对法律上的任何放宽。
  • She listens to classical music for relaxation.她听古典音乐放松。
32 gender slSyD     
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
33 deriding 1f5a29f707be0414dee70069ab56b86f     
v.取笑,嘲笑( deride的现在分词 )
  • The girls are deriding that boy's foolishness. 姑娘们在嘲笑那个男孩的愚笨。 来自互联网
34 superstitions bf6d10d6085a510f371db29a9b4f8c2f     
迷信,迷信行为( superstition的名词复数 )
  • Old superstitions seem incredible to educated people. 旧的迷信对于受过教育的人来说是不可思议的。
  • Do away with all fetishes and superstitions. 破除一切盲目崇拜和迷信。
35 irrational UaDzl     
  • After taking the drug she became completely irrational.她在吸毒后变得完全失去了理性。
  • There are also signs of irrational exuberance among some investors.在某些投资者中是存在非理性繁荣的征象的。