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Passage 28

  The settlement of the United States has occupied traditional historians since 1893 when Frederick Jackson Turner developed his Frontier Thesis, a thesis that explained American development in terms of westward1(5) expansion. From the perspective of women‘s history, Turner’s exclusively masculine assumptions constitute a major drawback: his defenders2 and critics alike have reconstructed men‘s, not women’s, lives on the frontier. However, precisely3 because of this masculine orientation,(10)revising the Frontier Thesis by focusing on women‘s experience introduces new themes into women’s history-woman as lawmaker and entrepreneur-and, consequently, new interpretations4 of women‘s relation- ship to capital, labor6, and statute7.
  (15)Turner claimed that the frontier produced the indivi-dualism that is the hallmark of American culture, and that this individualism in turn promoted democratic institutions and economic equality. He argued for the frontier as an agent of social change. Most novelists and(20) historians writing in the early to midtwentieth century who considered women in the West, when they consid- ered women at all, fell under Turner‘s spell. In their works these authors tended to glorify8 women’s contribu- tions to frontier life. Western women, in Turnerian tradi-(25) tion, were a fiercely independent, capable, and durable9 lot, free from the constraints10 binding11 their eastern sisters. This interpretation5 implied that the West provided a congenial environment where women could aspire12 to their own goals, free from constrictive13 stereotypes14 and(30) sexist attitudes. In Turnerian terminology15, the frontier had furnished “a gate of escape from the bondage16 of the past.”
  By the middle of the twentieth century, the Frontier Thesis fell into disfavor among historians. Later, Reac-(35) tionist writers took the view that frontier women were  lonely, displaced persons in a hostile milieu17 that intensi-  fied the worst aspects of gender18 relations. The renais-  sance of the feminist19 movement during the 1970‘s led to  the Stasist school, which sidestepped the good bad(40) dichotomy and argued that frontier women lived lives similar to the live of women in the East. In one now- standard text, Faragher demonstrated the persistence20 of the “cult of true womanhood” and the illusionary qual- ity of change on the westward journey. Recently the(45) Stasist position has been revised but not entirely21  discounted by new research.

  1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
   (A) provide a framework within which the history ofwomen in nineteenth-century America can beorganized.
   (B) discuss divergent interpretations of women‘s experience on the western frontier
   (C) introduce a new hypothesis about women‘s experience in nineteenth-century America
   (D) advocate an empirical approach to women‘s experience on the western frontier
   (E) resolve ambiguities22 in several theories about women‘s experience on the western frontier

  2. Which of the following can be inferred about the novelists and historians mentioned in lines 19-20?
   (A) They misunderstood the powerful influence of constrictive stereotypes on women in the East.
   (B) They assumed that the frontier had offered more opportunities to women than had the East.
   (C) They included accurate information about women‘s experiences on the frontier.
   (D) They underestimated the endurance and fortitude23 of frontier women.
   (E) They agreed with some of Turner‘s assumptions about frontier women, but disagreed with other assumptions that he made.

  3. Which of the following, if true, would provide additional evidence for the Stasists‘ argument as it is described in the passage?
   (A) Frontier women relied on smaller support groups of relatives and friends in the West than they had in the East.
   (B) The urban frontier in the West offered more occupational opportunity than the agricultural frontier offered.
   (C) Women participated more fully24 in the economic decisions of the family group in the West than they had in the East.
   (D) Western women received financial compensation for labor that was comparable to what women received in the East.
   (E) Western women did not have an effect on divorce laws, but lawmakers in the West were more responsive to women‘s concerns than lawmakers inthe East were.

  4. According to the passage, Turner makes which of the following connections in his Frontier Thesis?
  Ⅰ. A connection between American individualism andeconomic equality
  Ⅱ. A connection between geographical25 expansion andsocial change
  Ⅲ. A connection between social change and financialprosperity
   (A) I only
   (B) Ⅱonly
   (C) Ⅲ only
   (D) Ⅰand Ⅱ only
   (E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ

  5. It can be inferred that which of the following statements is consistent with the Reactionist position as it is described in the passage?
   (A) Continuity, not change, marked women‘s lives as they moved from East to West.
   (B) Women‘s experience on the North American frontierhas not received enough attention from modernhistorians.
   (C) Despite its rigors26, the frontier offered women opportunities that had not been available in the East.
   (D) Gender relations were more difficult for women in the West than they were in the East.
   (E) Women on the North American frontier adopted new roles while at the same time reaffirming traditional roles.

  6. Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
   (A) A current interpretation of a phenomenon is described and then ways in which it was developed are discussed.
   (B) Three theories are presented and then a new hypothesis that discounts those theories is described.
   (C) An important theory and its effects are discussed and then ways in which it has been revised are described.
   (D) A controversial theory is discussed and then viewpoints both for and against it are described.
   (E) A phenomenon is described and then theories concerning its correctness are discussed.

  7. Which of the following is true of the Stasist school as it is described in the passage?
   (A) It provides new interpretations of women‘s relationship to work and the law.
   (B) It resolves some of the ambiguities inherent in Turnerian and Reactionist thought.
   (C) It has recently been discounted by new research gathered on women‘s experience.
   (D) It avoids extreme positions taken by other writers on women‘s history.
   (E) It was the first school of thought to suggest substantial revisions to the Frontier Thesis.



1 westward XIvyz     
  • We live on the westward slope of the hill.我们住在这座山的西山坡。
  • Explore westward or wherever.向西或到什么别的地方去勘探。
2 defenders fe417584d64537baa7cd5e48222ccdf8     
n.防御者( defender的名词复数 );守卫者;保护者;辩护者
  • The defenders were outnumbered and had to give in. 抵抗者寡不敌众,只能投降。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • After hard fighting,the defenders were still masters of the city. 守军经过奋战仍然控制着城市。 来自《简明英汉词典》
3 precisely zlWzUb     
  • It's precisely that sort of slick sales-talk that I mistrust.我不相信的正是那种油腔滑调的推销宣传。
  • The man adjusted very precisely.那个人调得很准。
4 interpretations a61815f6fe8955c9d235d4082e30896b     
n.解释( interpretation的名词复数 );表演;演绎;理解
  • This passage is open to a variety of interpretations. 这篇文章可以有各种不同的解释。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • The involved and abstruse passage makes several interpretations possible. 这段艰涩的文字可以作出好几种解释。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
5 interpretation P5jxQ     
  • His statement admits of one interpretation only.他的话只有一种解释。
  • Analysis and interpretation is a very personal thing.分析与说明是个很主观的事情。
6 labor P9Tzs     
  • We are never late in satisfying him for his labor.我们从不延误付给他劳动报酬。
  • He was completely spent after two weeks of hard labor.艰苦劳动两周后,他已经疲惫不堪了。
7 statute TGUzb     
  • Protection for the consumer is laid down by statute.保障消费者利益已在法令里作了规定。
  • The next section will consider this environmental statute in detail.下一部分将详细论述环境法令的问题。
8 glorify MeNzm     
  • Politicians have complained that the media glorify drugs.政治家们抱怨媒体美化毒品。
  • We are all committed to serving the Lord and glorifying His name in the best way we know.我们全心全意敬奉上帝,竭尽所能颂扬他的美名。
9 durable frox4     
  • This raincoat is made of very durable material.这件雨衣是用非常耐用的料子做的。
  • They frequently require more major durable purchases.他们经常需要购买耐用消费品。
10 constraints d178923285d63e9968956a0a4758267e     
强制( constraint的名词复数 ); 限制; 约束
  • Data and constraints can easily be changed to test theories. 信息库中的数据和限制条件可以轻易地改变以检验假设。 来自英汉非文学 - 科学史
  • What are the constraints that each of these imply for any design? 这每种产品的要求和约束对于设计意味着什么? 来自About Face 3交互设计精髓
11 binding 2yEzWb     
  • The contract was not signed and has no binding force. 合同没有签署因而没有约束力。
  • Both sides have agreed that the arbitration will be binding. 双方都赞同仲裁具有约束力。
12 aspire ANbz2     
  • Living together with you is what I aspire toward in my life.和你一起生活是我一生最大的愿望。
  • I aspire to be an innovator not a follower.我迫切希望能变成个开创者而不是跟随者。
13 constrictive 7cb6a15454de0c1319a42321c743a2fa     
  • Flattening of the right atrial border is also seen in constrictive pericarditis. 右心房缘变平亦见于缩窄性心包炎。
  • Objective: Early operative results of pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis was studied. 目的:研究影响缩窄性心包炎心包剥脱术早期预后的因素。
14 stereotypes 1ff39410e7d7a101c62ac42c17e0df24     
n.老套,模式化的见解,有老一套固定想法的人( stereotype的名词复数 )v.把…模式化,使成陈规( stereotype的第三人称单数 )
  • Such jokes tend to reinforce racial stereotypes. 这样的笑话容易渲染种族偏见。
  • It makes me sick to read over such stereotypes devoid of content. 这种空洞无物的八股调,我看了就讨厌。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
15 terminology spmwD     
  • He particularly criticized the terminology in the document.他特别批评了文件中使用的术语。
  • The article uses rather specialized musical terminology.这篇文章用了相当专业的音乐术语。
16 bondage 0NtzR     
  • Masters sometimes allowed their slaves to buy their way out of bondage.奴隶主们有时允许奴隶为自己赎身。
  • They aim to deliver the people who are in bondage to superstitious belief.他们的目的在于解脱那些受迷信束缚的人。
17 milieu x7yzN     
  • Foods usually provide a good milieu for the persistence of viruses.食品通常为病毒存续提供了一个良好的栖身所。
  • He was born in a social milieu where further education was a luxury.他生在一个受较高教育就被认为是奢侈的社会环境里。
18 gender slSyD     
  • French differs from English in having gender for all nouns.法语不同于英语,所有的名词都有性。
  • Women are sometimes denied opportunities solely because of their gender.妇女有时仅仅因为性别而无法获得种种机会。
19 feminist mliyh     
  • She followed the feminist movement.她支持女权运动。
  • From then on,feminist studies on literature boomed.从那时起,男女平等受教育的现象开始迅速兴起。
20 persistence hSLzh     
  • The persistence of a cough in his daughter puzzled him.他女儿持续的咳嗽把他难住了。
  • He achieved success through dogged persistence.他靠着坚持不懈取得了成功。
21 entirely entirely     
  • The fire was entirely caused by their neglect of duty. 那场火灾完全是由于他们失职而引起的。
  • His life was entirely given up to the educational work. 他的一生统统献给了教育工作。
22 ambiguities c533dc08d00d937d04433f16ae260367     
n.歧义( ambiguity的名词复数 );意义不明确;模棱两可的意思;模棱两可的话
  • His reply was full of ambiguities. 他的答复非常暧昧。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Fortunately, no ambiguities hang about this word or about its opposite, indeterminism. 值得庆幸的是,关于这个词和它的反义词,非决定论都不存在多种解释。 来自哲学部分
23 fortitude offzz     
  • His dauntless fortitude makes him absolutely fearless.他不屈不挠的坚韧让他绝无恐惧。
  • He bore the pain with great fortitude.他以极大的毅力忍受了痛苦。
24 fully Gfuzd     
  • The doctor asked me to breathe in,then to breathe out fully.医生让我先吸气,然后全部呼出。
  • They soon became fully integrated into the local community.他们很快就完全融入了当地人的圈子。
25 geographical Cgjxb     
  • The current survey will have a wider geographical spread.当前的调查将在更广泛的地域范围內进行。
  • These birds have a wide geographical distribution.这些鸟的地理分布很广。
26 rigors 466678414e27533457628ace559db9cb     
严格( rigor的名词复数 ); 严酷; 严密; (由惊吓或中毒等导致的身体)僵直
  • The rigors of that lonely land need no further description. 生活在那个穷乡僻壤的困苦是无庸赘言的。
  • You aren't ready for the rigors of industry. 你不适合干工业的艰苦工作了。