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Passage 25
  In 1977 the prestigious1 Ewha Women‘s University inSeoul, Korea, announced the opening of the firstwomen’s studies program in Asia. Few academicprograms have ever received such public attention. In(5) broadcast debates, critics dismissed the program as abetrayal of national identity, an imitation of Westernideas, and a distraction2 from the real task of nationalunification and economic development. Even supportersunderestimated the program ; they thought it would be(10) merely another of the many Western ideas that hadalready proved useful in Asian culture, akin3 to airlines,electricity, and the assembly line. The founders4 of theprogram, however, realized that neither view wascorrect. They had some reservations about the appli-(15) cability of Western feminist5 theories to the role ofwomen in Asia and felt that such theories should beclosely examined. Their approach has thus far yieldedimportant critiques of Western theory, informed by thespecial experience of Asian women.
  (20)For instance, like the Western feminist critique of theFreudian model of the human psyche6, the Korean critique finds Freudian theory culture-bound, but inways different from those cited by Western theorists.The Korean theorists claim that Freudian theory(25) assumes the universality of the Western nuclear, male-headed family and focuses on the personality formationof the individual, independent of society, An analysisbased on such assumptions could be valid7 for a highlycompetitive, individualistic society. In the Freudian(30) family drama, family members are assumed to beengaged in a Darwinian struggle against each other-father against son and sibling8 against sibling. Such aconcept of projects the competitive model of Westernsociety onto human personalities9. But in the Asian(35) concept of personality there is no ideal attached to individualism or to the independent self. The Western modelof personality development does not explain major char-acteristics of the Korean personality, which is social andgroup-centered. The “self” is a social being defined by(40) and acting10 in a group, and the well-being11 of both menand women is determined12 by the equilibrium13 of thegroup, not by individual self-assertion. The ideal is oneof interdependency.
  In such a context, what is recognized as “depen-(45) dency” in Western psychiatric terms is not, in Koreanterms, an admission of weakness or failure. All this bearsdirectly on the Asian perception of men‘s and women’spsychology because men are also “ dependent”, InKorean culture, men cry and otherwise easily show their(50) emotions, something that might be considered a betrayalof masculinity in Western culture. In the kinship-basedsociety of Korea, four generations may live in the samehouse, which means that people can be sons and daugh-ters all their lives, whereas in Western culture, the rolesof husband and son, wife and daughter, are often incom-patible.

  1. Which of the following best summarizes the content of the passage?
   (A) A critique of a particular women‘s studies program
   (B) A report of work in social theory done by a particular women‘s studies program
   (C) An assessment14 of the strengths and weaknesses of a particular women‘s studies program
   (D) An analysis of the philosophy underlying15 women‘s studies programs
   (E) An abbreviated16 history of Korean women‘s studies programs

  2. It can be inferred from the passage that Korean scholars in the field of women‘s studies undertook an analysis of Freudian theory as a response to which of the following?
   (A) Attacks by critics of the Ewha women‘s studies program
   (B) The superficiality of earlier critiques of Freudian theory
   (C) The popularity of Freud in Korean psychiatric circles
   (D) Their desire to encourage Korean scholars to adopt the Freudian model
   (E) Their assessment of the relevance17 and limitations of Western feminist theory with respect to Korean culture

  3. Which of the following conclusions about the introduction of Western ideas to Korean society can be supported by information contained in the passage?
   (A) Except for technological18 innovations, few Western ideas have been successfully transplanted into Korean society.
   (B) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society is viewed by some Koreans as a challenge to Korean identity.
   (C) The development of the Korean economy depends heavily on the development of new academic programs modeled after Western programs.
   (D) The extent to which Western ideas must be adapted for acceptance by Korean society is minimal19.
   (E) The introduction of Western ideas to Korean society accelerated after 1977.

  4. It can be inferred from the passage that the broadcast media in Korea considered the establishment of the Ewha women‘s studies program
   (A) praiseworthy
   (B) insignificant20
   (C) newsworthy
   (D) imitative
   (E) incomprehensible

  5. It can be inferred from the passage that the position taken by some of the supporters of the Ewha women‘s studies program was problematic to the founders of the program because those supporters
   (A) assumed that the program would be based on the uncritical adoption21 of Western theory
   (B) failed to show concern for the issues of national unification and economic development
   (C) were unfamiliar22 with Western feminist theory
   (D) were not themselves scholars in the field of women‘s studies
   (E) accepted the universality of Freudian theory

  6. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the view of personality development held by the  Ewha women‘s studies group?
   (A) Personality development occurs in identifiable stages, beginning with dependency in childhood and ending with independence in adulthood23.
   (B) Any theory of personality development, in order to be valid, must be universal.
   (C) Personality development is influenced by the characteristics of the society in which a person lives.
   (D) Personality development is hindered if a person is not permitted to be independent.
   (E) No theory of personality development can account for the differences between Korean and Western culture.

  7. Which of the following statements about the Western feminist critique of Freudian theory can be supported  by information contained in the passage?
   (A) It recognizes the influence of Western culture on Freudian theory.
   (B) It was written after 1977.
   (C) It acknowledges the universality of the nuclear,male-headed family.
   (D) It challenges Freud‘s analysis of the role of daughters in Western society.
   (E) It fails to address the issue of competitiveness in Western society.

  8. According to the passage, critics of the Ewha women‘s studies program cited the program as a threat to which of the following?
   Ⅰ. National identity
   Ⅱ. National unification
   Ⅲ. Economic development
   Ⅳ.Family integrity
   (A) Ⅰ only
   (B) Ⅰ and Ⅱ only
   (C) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,and Ⅲ only
   (D) Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ only
   (E) Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ, and Ⅳ


1 prestigious nQ2xn     
  • The young man graduated from a prestigious university.这个年轻人毕业于一所名牌大学。
  • You may even join a prestigious magazine as a contributing editor.甚至可能会加入一个知名杂志做编辑。
2 distraction muOz3l     
  • Total concentration is required with no distractions.要全神贯注,不能有丝毫分神。
  • Their national distraction is going to the disco.他们的全民消遣就是去蹦迪。
3 akin uxbz2     
  • She painted flowers and birds pictures akin to those of earlier feminine painters.她画一些同早期女画家类似的花鸟画。
  • Listening to his life story is akin to reading a good adventure novel.听他的人生故事犹如阅读一本精彩的冒险小说。
4 founders 863257b2606659efe292a0bf3114782c     
n.创始人( founder的名词复数 )
  • He was one of the founders of the university's medical faculty. 他是该大学医学院的创建人之一。 来自辞典例句
  • The founders of our religion made this a cornerstone of morality. 我们宗教的创始人把这看作是道德的基石。 来自辞典例句
5 feminist mliyh     
  • She followed the feminist movement.她支持女权运动。
  • From then on,feminist studies on literature boomed.从那时起,男女平等受教育的现象开始迅速兴起。
6 psyche Ytpyd     
  • His exploration of the myth brings insight into the American psyche.他对这个神话的探讨揭示了美国人的心理。
  • She spent her life plumbing the mysteries of the human psyche.她毕生探索人类心灵的奥秘。
7 valid eiCwm     
  • His claim to own the house is valid.他主张对此屋的所有权有效。
  • Do you have valid reasons for your absence?你的缺席有正当理由吗?
8 sibling TEszc     
  • Many of us hate living in the shadows of a more successful sibling.我们很多人都讨厌活在更为成功的手足的阴影下。
  • Sibling ravalry has been common in this family.这个家里,兄弟姊妹之间的矛盾很平常。
9 personalities ylOzsg     
n. 诽谤,(对某人容貌、性格等所进行的)人身攻击; 人身攻击;人格, 个性, 名人( personality的名词复数 )
  • There seemed to be a degree of personalities in her remarks.她话里有些人身攻击的成分。
  • Personalities are not in good taste in general conversation.在一般的谈话中诽谤他人是不高尚的。
10 acting czRzoc     
  • Ignore her,she's just acting.别理她,她只是假装的。
  • During the seventies,her acting career was in eclipse.在七十年代,她的表演生涯黯然失色。
11 well-being Fe3zbn     
  • He always has the well-being of the masses at heart.他总是把群众的疾苦挂在心上。
  • My concern for their well-being was misunderstood as interference.我关心他们的幸福,却被误解为多管闲事。
12 determined duszmP     
  • I have determined on going to Tibet after graduation.我已决定毕业后去西藏。
  • He determined to view the rooms behind the office.他决定查看一下办公室后面的房间。
13 equilibrium jiazs     
  • Change in the world around us disturbs our inner equilibrium.我们周围世界的变化扰乱了我们内心的平静。
  • This is best expressed in the form of an equilibrium constant.这最好用平衡常数的形式来表示。
14 assessment vO7yu     
  • This is a very perceptive assessment of the situation.这是一个对该情况的极富洞察力的评价。
  • What is your assessment of the situation?你对时局的看法如何?
15 underlying 5fyz8c     
  • The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说隐含的主题是十分严肃的。
  • This word has its underlying meaning.这个单词有它潜在的含义。
16 abbreviated 32a218f05db198fc10c9206836aaa17a     
adj. 简短的,省略的 动词abbreviate的过去式和过去分词
  • He abbreviated so much that it was hard to understand his article. 他的文章缩写词使用太多,令人费解。
  • The United States of America is commonly abbreviated to U.S.A.. 美利坚合众国常被缩略为U.S.A.。
17 relevance gVAxg     
  • Politicians' private lives have no relevance to their public roles.政治家的私生活与他们的公众角色不相关。
  • Her ideas have lost all relevance to the modern world.她的想法与现代社会完全脱节。
18 technological gqiwY     
  • A successful company must keep up with the pace of technological change.一家成功的公司必须得跟上技术变革的步伐。
  • Today,the pace of life is increasing with technological advancements.当今, 随着科技进步,生活节奏不断增快。
19 minimal ODjx6     
  • They referred to this kind of art as minimal art.他们把这种艺术叫微型艺术。
  • I stayed with friends, so my expenses were minimal.我住在朋友家,所以我的花费很小。
20 insignificant k6Mx1     
  • In winter the effect was found to be insignificant.在冬季,这种作用是不明显的。
  • This problem was insignificant compared to others she faced.这一问题与她面临的其他问题比较起来算不得什么。
21 adoption UK7yu     
  • An adoption agency had sent the boys to two different families.一个收养机构把他们送给两个不同的家庭。
  • The adoption of this policy would relieve them of a tremendous burden.采取这一政策会给他们解除一个巨大的负担。
22 unfamiliar uk6w4     
  • I am unfamiliar with the place and the people here.我在这儿人地生疏。
  • The man seemed unfamiliar to me.这人很面生。
23 adulthood vKsyr     
  • Some infantile actions survive into adulthood.某些婴儿期的行为一直保持到成年期。
  • Few people nowadays are able to maintain friendships into adulthood.如今很少有人能将友谊维持到成年。