少年派的奇幻漂流 Chapter 4
文章来源:未知 文章作者:enread 发布时间:2023-05-16 07:55 字体: [ ]  进入论坛
Chapter 4
Our good old nation was just seven years old as a republic when it became bigger by a small territory. Pondicherry entered the Union of India on November 1, 1954. One civic1 achievement called for another. A portion of the grounds of the Pondicherry Botanical Garden was made available rent-free for an exciting business opportunity and - lo and behold2 - India had a brand new zoo, designed and run according to the most modern, biologically sound principles.
It was a huge zoo, spread over numberless acres, big enough to require a train to explore it, though it seemed to get smaller as I grew older, train included. Now it's so small it fits in my head. You must imagine a hot and humid place, bathed in sunshine and bright colours. The riot of flowers is incessant3. There are trees, shrubs4 and climbing plants in profusion5 - peepuls, gulmohurs, flames of the forest, red silk cottons, jacarandas, mangoes, jackfruits and many others that would remain unknown to you if they didn't have neat labels at their feet. There are benches. On these benches you see men sleeping, stretched out, or couples sitting, young couples, who steal glances at each other shyly and whose hands flutter in the air, happening to touch. Suddenly, amidst the tall and slim trees up ahead, you notice two giraffes quietly observing you. The sight is not the last of your surprises. The next moment you are startled by a furious outburst coming from a great troupe6 of monkeys, only outdone in volume by the shrill7 cries of strange birds. You come to a turnstile. You distractedly pay a small sum of money. You move on. You see a low wall. What can you expect beyond a low wall? Certainly not a shallow pit with two mighty8 Indian rhinoceros9. But that is what you find. And when you turn your head you see the elephant that was there all along, so big you didn't notice it. And in the pond you realize those are hippopotamuses10 floating in the water. The more you look, the more you see. You are in Zootown!
Before moving to Pondicherry, Father ran a large hotel in Madras. An abiding11 interest in animals led him to the zoo business. A natural transition, you might think, from hotelkeeping to zookeeping. Not so. In many ways, running a zoo is a hotelkeeper's worst nightmare. Consider: the guests never leave their rooms; they expect not only lodging12 but full board; they receive a constant flow of visitors, some of whom are noisy and unruly. One has to wait until they saunter to their balconies, so to speak, before one can clean their rooms, and then one has to wait until they tire of the view and return to their rooms before one can clean their balconies; and there is much cleaning to do, for the guests are as unhygienic as alcoholics13. Each guest is very particular about his or her diet, constantly complains about the slowness of the service, and never, ever tips. To speak frankly14, many are sexual deviants, either terribly repressed and subject to explosions of frenzied15 lasciviousness16 or openly depraved, in either case regularly affronting17 management with gross outrages18 of free sex and incest. Are these the sorts of guests you would want to welcome to your inn? The Pondicherry Zoo was the source of some pleasure and many headaches for Mr. Santosh Patel, founder19, owner, director, head of a staff of fifty-three, and my father.
To me, it was paradise on earth. I have nothing but the fondest memories of growing up in a zoo. I lived the life of a prince. What maharaja's son had such vast, luxuriant grounds to play about? What palace had such a menagerie? My alarm clock during my childhood was a pride of lions. They were no Swiss clocks, but the lions could be counted upon to roar their heads off between five-thirty and six every morning. Breakfast was punctuated20 by the shrieks22 and cries of howler monkeys, hill mynahs and Moluccan cockatoos. I left for school under the benevolent23 gaze not only of Mother but also of bright-eyed otters24 and burly American bison and stretching and yawning orang-utans. I looked up as I ran under some trees, otherwise peafowl might excrete on me. Better to go by the trees that sheltered the large colonies of fruit bats; the only assault there at that early hour was the bats' discordant25 concerts of squeaking26 and chattering27. On my way out I might stop by the terraria to look at some shiny frogs glazed28 bright, bright green, or yellow and deep blue, or brown and pale green. Or it might be birds that caught my attention: pink flamingoes or black swans or one-wattled cassowaries, or something smaller, silver diamond doves, Cape29 glossy30 starlings, peach-faced lovebirds, Nanday conures, orange-fronted parakeets. Not likely that the elephants, the seals, the big cats or the bears would be up and doing, but the baboons31, the macaques, the mangabeys, the gibbons, the deer, the tapirs, the llamas, the giraffes, the mongooses were early risers. Every morning before I was out the main gate I had one last impression that was both ordinary and unforgettable: a pyramid of turtles; the iridescent32 snout of a mandrill; the stately silence of a giraffe; the obese33, yellow open mouth of a hippo; the beak-and-claw climbing of a macaw parrot up a wire fence; the greeting claps of a shoebill's bill; the senile, lecherous34 expression of a camel. And all these riches were had quickly, as I hurried to school. It was after school that I discovered in a leisurely35 way what it's like to have an elephant search your clothes in the friendly hope of finding a hidden nut, or an orang-utan pick through your hair for tick snacks, its wheeze36 of disappointment at what an empty pantry your head is. I wish I could convey the perfection of a seal slipping into water or a spider monkey swinging from point to point or a lion merely turning its head. But language founders37 in such seas. Better to picture it in your head if you want to feel it.
In zoos, as in nature, the best times to visit are sunrise and sunset. That is when most animals come to life. They stir and leave their shelter and tiptoe to the water's edge. They show their raiments. They sing their songs. They turn to each other and perform their rites38. The reward for the watching eye and the listening ear is great. I spent more hours than I can count a quiet witness to the highly mannered, manifold expressions of life that grace our planet. It is something so bright, loud, weird39 and delicate as to stupefy the senses.
I have heard nearly as much nonsense about zoos as I have about God and religion. Well-meaning but misinformed people think animals in the wild are "happy" because they are "free." These people usually have a large, handsome predator40 in mind, a lion or a cheetah41 (the life of a gnu or of an aardvark is rarely exalted). They imagine this wild animal roaming about the savannah on digestive walks after eating a prey42 that accepted its lot piously43, or going for callisthenic runs to stay slim after overindulging. They imagine this animal overseeing its offspring proudly and tenderly, the whole family watching the setting of the sun from the limbs of trees with sighs of pleasure. The life of the wild animal is simple, noble and meaningful, they imagine. Then it is captured by wicked men and thrown into tiny jails. Its "happiness" is dashed. It yearns44 mightily45 for "freedom" and does all it can to escape. Being denied its "freedom" for too long, the animal becomes a shadow of itself, its spirit broken. So some people imagine.
This is not the way it is.
Animals in the wild lead lives of compulsion and necessity within an unforgiving social hierarchy46 in an environment where the supply of fear is high and the supply of food low and where territory must constantly be defended and parasites47 forever endured. What is the meaning of freedom in such a context? Animals in the wild are, in practice, free neither in space nor in time, nor in their personal relations. In theory - that is, as a simple physical possibility - an animal could pick up and go, flaunting48 all the social conventions and boundaries proper to its species. But such an event is less likely to happen than for a member of our own species, say a shopkeeper with all the usual ties - to family, to friends, to society - to drop everything and walk away from his life with only the spare change in his pockets and the clothes on his frame. If a man, boldest and most intelligent of creatures, won't wander from place to place, a stranger to all, beholden to none, why would an animal, which is by temperament49 far more conservative? For that is what animals are, conservative, one might even say reactionary50. The smallest changes can upset them. They want things to be just so, day after day, month after month. Surprises are highly disagreeable to them. You see this in their spatial51 relations. An animal inhabits its space, whether in a zoo or in the wild, in the same way chess pieces move about a chessboard - significantly. There is no more happenstance, no more "freedom," involved in the whereabouts of a lizard52 or a bear or a deer than in the location of a knight53 on a chessboard. Both speak of pattern and purpose. In the wild, animals stick to the same paths for the same pressing reasons, season after season. In a zoo, if an animal is not in its normal place in its regular posture54 at the usual hour, it means something. It may be the reflection of nothing more than a minor55 change in the environment. A coiled hose left out by a keeper has made a menacing impression. A puddle56 has formed that bothers the animal. A ladder is making a shadow. But it could mean something more. At its worst, it could be that most dreaded57 thing to a zoo director: a symptom, a herald58 of trouble to come, a reason to inspect the dung, to cross-examine the keeper, to summon the vet59. All this because a stork60 is not standing61 where it usually stands!
But let me pursue for a moment only one aspect of the question.
If you went to a home, kicked down the front door, chased the people who lived there out into the street and said, "Go! You are free! Free as a bird! Go! Go!" - do you think they would shout and dance for joy? They wouldn't. Birds are not free. The people you've just evicted62 would sputter63, "With what right do you throw us out? This is our home. We own it. We have lived here for years. We're calling the police, you scoundrel."
Don't we say, "There's no place like home?" That's certainly what animals feel. Animals are territorial64. That is the key to their minds. Only a familiar territory will allow them to fulfill65 the two relentless66 imperatives67 of the wild: the avoidance of enemies and the getting of food and water. A biologically sound zoo enclosure - whether cage, pit, moated island, corral, terrarium, aviary68 or aquarium69 - is just another territory, peculiar70 only in its size and in its proximity71 to human territory. That it is so much smaller than what it would be in nature stands to reason. Territories in the wild are large not as a matter of taste but of necessity. In a zoo, we do for animals what we have done for ourselves with houses: we bring together in a small space what in the wild is spread out. Whereas before for us the cave was here, the river over there, the hunting grounds a mile that way, the lookout72 next to it, the berries somewhere else - all of them infested73 with lions, snakes, ants, leeches74 and poison ivy75 - now the river flows through taps at hand's reach and we can wash next to where we sleep, we can eat where we have cooked, and we can surround the whole with a protective wall and keep it clean and warm. A house is a compressed territory where our basic needs can be fulfilled close by and safely. A sound zoo enclosure is the equivalent for an animal (with the noteworthy absence of a fireplace or the like, present in every human habitation). Finding within it all the places it needs - a lookout, a place for resting, for eating and drinking, for bathing, for grooming76, etc. - and finding that there is no need to go hunting, food appearing six days a week, an animal will take possession of its zoo space in the same way it would lay claim to a new space in the wild, exploring it and marking it out in the normal ways of its species, with sprays of urine perhaps. Once this moving-in ritual is done and the animal has settled, it will not feel like a nervous tenant77, and even less like a prisoner, but rather like a landholder, and it will behave in the same way within its enclosure as it would in its territory in the wild, including defending it tooth and nail should it be invaded. Such an enclosure is subjectively78 neither better nor worse for an animal than its condition in the wild; so long as it fulfills79 the animal's needs, a territory, natural or constructed, simply is, without judgment80, a given, like the spots on a leopard81. One might even argue that if an animal could choose with intelligence, it would opt82 for living in a zoo, since the major difference between a zoo and the wild is the absence of parasites and enemies and the abundance of food in the first, and their respective abundance and scarcity83 in the second. Think about it yourself. Would you rather be put up at the Ritz with free room service and unlimited84 access to a doctor or be homeless without a soul to care for you? But animals are incapable85 of such discernment. Within the limits of their nature, they make do with what they have.
A good zoo is a place of carefully worked-out coincidence: exactly where an animal says to us, "Stay out!" with its urine or other secretion86, we say to it, "Stay in!" with our barriers. Under such conditions of diplomatic peace, all animals are content and we can relax and have a look at each other.
In the literature can be found legions of examples of animals that could escape but did not, or did and returned. There is the case of the chimpanzee whose cage door was left unlocked and had swung open. Increasingly anxious, the chimp87 began to shriek21 and to slam the door shut repeatedly - with a deafening88 clang each time - until the keeper, notified by a visitor, hurried over to remedy the situation. A herd89 of roe-deer in a European zoo stepped out of their corral when the gate was left open. Frightened by visitors, the deer bolted for the nearby forest, which had its own herd of wild roe-deer and could support more. Nonetheless, the zoo roe-deer quickly returned to their corral. In another zoo a worker was walking to his work site at an early hour, carrying planks90 of wood, when, to his horror, a bear emerged from the morning mist, heading straight for him at a confident pace. The man dropped the planks and ran for his life. The zoo staff immediately started searching for the escaped bear. They found it back in its enclosure, having climbed down into its pit the way it had climbed out, by way of a tree that had fallen over. It was thought that the noise of the planks of wood falling to the ground had frightened it.
But I don't insist. I don't mean to defend zoos. Close them all down if you want (and let us hope that what wildlife remains91 can survive in what is left of the natural world). I know zoos are no longer in people's good graces. Religion faces the same problem. Certain illusions about freedom plague them both.
The Pondicherry Zoo doesn't exist any more. Its pits are filled in, the cages torn down. I explore it now in the only place left for it, my memory.

    我们古老美好的祖国刚刚度过共和国7岁生日就因为又增加了一小块疆域而变得更加辽阔了。本地治里于1  954年11月1日加入了印度联邦。一项城市建设成就带来了另一项成就。本地治里植物园的一块场地可以用来发展令人兴奋的商机,租金全免,于是——你瞧 ——印度有了崭新的动物园,完全按照最现代、最符合生物学原理的标准设计和管理。
    那是一座巨大的动物园,占地无数公顷,大到需要乘火车探索,尽管随着我年龄的增长,它渐渐变小了,火车也变小了。现在它已经太小了,只存在于我的脑海里。 你得想像一个炎热潮湿的地方,洒满了阳光,到处是鲜艳的色彩。五颜六色的鲜花争相开放,四季不断。那里有茂盛的乔木、灌木和攀缘植物——菩提树、火焰树、 凤凰木、红色丝光木棉、蓝花楹、芒果树、木波罗和很多其他植物,要不是这些植物脚下有简明的标签,你是不会认识它们的。园里有长凳。你能看见有人在长凳上 睡觉,舒展着身子,或者有对对情侣坐在长凳上,年轻的情侣,害羞地偷偷瞟对有一眼,手在空中挥动着,碰巧碰到了对方的手。突然,你看到在前面几株又高又细 的树之间有两头长颈鹿正静静地观察你。这可不是最后一幅让你惊讶的景象。紧接着你被一大群猴子突然发出的愤怒叫声吓了一跳,而这声音又被陌生鸟类的尖声呜 叫压了下去。你来到一道旋转栅栏门前。你心不在焉地付了一小笔钱。你继续往前走。你看到一堵矮墙。你能指望在矮墙后面看到什么呢?肯定不是里面有两头庞大 的印度犀牛的浅坑。但你发现的就是这个。当你转过头去时,你看见了一直在那儿的大象,它太大了,刚才你都没注意到它。你意识到浮在池水里的是河马。你看得 越多,看到的便越多。你现在是在动物园城里!
    在搬到本地治里之前,父亲在马德拉斯经营一家旅馆。对动物的持久兴趣使他转向了经营动物园这一行。也许你认为从经营旅馆到经营动物园是一个自然的转变。并 非如此。在很多方面,经营动物园都是旅馆经营者的最糟糕的噩梦。想想吧:客人从不离开自己的房间;它们不仅需要住处,而且需要全食宿;它们不停地接待客 人,其中有些客人吵吵嚷嚷,不守规矩。你得等到它们到所谓的阳台上散步时才能打扫房间,然后得等到它们对外面的景色感到厌烦了,回到房间时,才能打扫阳 台;有很多清扫工作要做,因为这些客人就像醉鬼一样不讲卫生。每一位客人都对自己的饮食十分挑剔,不停地抱怨菜上得太慢,而且从来、从来不给小费。坦白地 说,有很多客人性行为异常,不是可怕地压抑,易于爆发疯狂的淫乱,就是公开地堕落,无论是哪一种情况,它们都经常以极端肆元忌惮的自由性行为和乱伦行为冒 犯管理者。你会欢迎这样的客人到你的酒店去吗?本地治里动物园给桑托什·帕特尔先生——动物园创建人、拥有者、园长、53名员工的头和我的父亲——带来了 些许快乐和许多令人头疼的麻烦。
    对我来说,那里是人间天堂。在动物园长大的经历给我留下了最美好的回忆。我生活得像一位王子。哪一位土邦主的儿子有如此广阔的郁郁葱葱的场地可以玩耍?哪 一座宫殿有如此多的野生动物?我童年时代的闹钟是一群狮子。它们不是瑞士钟,但是每天早晨五点半到六点之间它们一定会大声吼叫。早餐被吼猴、鹩哥和摩鹿加 群岛凤头鹦鹉的尖声呜叫和大声叫喊打断。我离家去上学时,和蔼地注视着我的不仅有母亲,还有眼睛亮晶晶的水獭,高大结实的美洲野牛和伸着懒腰、打着哈欠的 猩猩。我从几棵树下跑过时抬起头来,否则孔雀就可能排泄在我身上。最好从栖息着大群狐蝠的树下走过;一大清早,那里惟一的攻击就是蝙蝠刺耳的吱吱吱唧唧唧 的叫声。在出去的路上,我也许会在陆栖小动物饲养箱旁边停下来,看看那些有着明亮光泽的青蛙,闪着非常、非常鲜艳的绿色,或是黄色和深蓝色,或是棕色和淡 绿色。或者,也许吸引了我的注意力的是鸟儿:粉红色鹳鸟或是黑天鹅或是有一只肉垂的食火鸡,或是小一些的鸟,银色钻石鸠,好望角彩椋,桃红色脸的情侣鹦 鹉,黑冠锥尾鹦鹉,橘黄色胸脯的长尾小鹦鹉。大象、海豹、大型猫科动物或熊不大可能已经起来活动了,但是狒狒、弥猴、白眉猴、长臂猿、鹿、貘、美洲驼、长 颈鹿和猿都起得早。每天早晨,在走出大门之前,我都会有一个既平常又难忘的印象:海龟堆得像一座金字塔;山魈口鼻的颜色仿佛一道彩虹;长颈鹿威严地沉默 着;河马张开肥肥的黄色的嘴;金刚鹦鹉嘴脚并用地在爬金属丝围栏;鲸头鹳拍打着长嘴,仿佛在向人问好;骆驼脸上一副老态龙钟的好色的表情。所有这些财富都 是我在匆匆忙忙去学校的时候迅速拥有的。放学后我才从容地发现,大象搜你的衣服,友好地希望找到里面藏着的坚果,或者猩猩在你的头发里翻找虱蝇做零食,发 现你的脑袋是个空空如也的食品室时失望地呼哧呼哧直喘气,这是一种什么样的感觉。我真希望自己能够传达海豹滑进水里或蛛猴从一个地方荡到另一个地方或狮子 仅仅转过头那一瞬间的动作的完美。但是语言在这里无能为力。如果你想感受这一切,最好在心里想像。
    在动物园里和在大自然中一样,观赏动物的最佳时机是日出和日落的时候。那时大多数动物都活跃起来。它们起身离开栖息处,悄悄来到水边。它们展示自己的服 饰。它们放声歌唱。它们互相面对,举行仪式。善于观察的眼睛和善于倾听的耳朵得到的回报是巨大的。我数不清自己花了多少个小时,静静地观看这些给我们的行 星增光的非常别具一格的多种多样的生命形式。这一切是如此地鲜艳、响亮、神秘又优美,让人丧失了所有的知觉。
    他们想像这只野生动物在吃了虔诚地接受自己命运的猎物之后,在热带稀树草原上闲逛,散步消食,或者在吃得过多之后去跑步健美,以保持苗条身材。他们 想像这只动物骄傲地湿柔地照顾自己的后代,全家在树枝上观赏日落,发出快乐的叹息。他们想像野生动物的生活简单、高贵、充满意义。后来它被邪恶的人捉住 了,扔进了狭小的监牢。它的“快乐”被击得粉碎。它深深地渴望“自由”,用尽一切方法逃跑。由于被剥夺“间太久了,这只动物成了自己的影子,它的精神垮 了。有些人就是这么想像的。
    野生环境中的动物生活在一个有很多恐惧却只有很少食物,需要不断保卫地盘,只能永远忍受寄生虫的环境中。在一个无情的等级严格的群体中,它们所做的一切完 全是出于必要,被迫如此。在这样的情况下,自由的意义何在?实际上,野生环境中的动物无论在空间上、时间上,还是在个体关系上都不自由。在理论上——也就 是说,作为一种简单的实际可能性——动物可以收拾东西离开,藐视它这个物种认为合适的一切群体准则和界限。但是这样的事情比在我们人类成员身上更不可能发 生,比如一个有着所有常见的联系——与家庭、朋友、社会的联系——的店主,他不可能丢下一切,只带着口袋里的零钱和身上的衣服就从自己的生活里走开。如果 一个人,最大胆、最聪明的生物,不可能从一个地方游荡到另一个地方,所有人都不认识他,他也不依赖于任何人,那么为什么性情保守得多的动物会这么做呢?动 物就是如此,保守,甚至可以说极端保守。最微小的变化也会让它们心烦意乱。它们希望一天又一天,一月又一月,事物丝毫不变。意外的事物令它们十分不快。你 在它们的空间关系上能看到这一点。无论是在动物园里还是在野生环境中,动物在它的空间里的居住方式和棋子在棋盘上移动的方式一祥——意味深长。一条蜥蜴或 一头熊或一只鹿所在的位置不比棋盘上的马所在的位置有更多的巧合,或更多的“自由”。两者的位置都说明了方式和目的。在野生环境中,一季又一季,动物因为 同样迫切的原因,每次都走同样的小路。在动物园里,如果一只动物没有在惯常的时间以固定的姿势出现在平常的地点,那么这就说明有问题了。也许这只是对环境 中一个微小变化的反应。饲养员留在外面的卷起来的水管让它感到了威胁。一个水坑刚刚形成,让它感到紧张。一架梯子投下了阴影。但是这也可能说明更多的问 题。最糟糕的是,这可能是动物园园长最担忧的:这是一个症状,是麻烦即将来临的预告,是检查粪便、盘问饲养员、召来兽医的原因。所有这一切都是因为一只鹤 没有站在它平常站的地方!
    如果你到一户人家去,把前门踢开,把住在里面的人赶到大街上去,说:“去吧!你们自由了!像小鸟一样自由!去吧!去吧!”你以为他们会高兴得又叫又跳吗? 他们不会。小鸟并不自由。你刚刚赶走的人会气急败坏地说:“你有什么权力把我们扔出去?这是我们的家。我们是这里的主人。我们在这儿住了很多年了。我们这 就叫警察,你这个流氓。"
    我们不是说“金窝银窝,不如自己的穷窝”吗?动物肯定就是这么感觉的。动物的地盘意识很强。这是它们大脑的关键所在。只有熟悉的地盘才能让它们完成野生环 境中两件需要不断去做的极其重要的事情:躲避敌人以及获取食物和水。符合生物学原理的动物园里的场地——无论是笼子、兽栏、四周有深沟的小岛、围栏、陆栖 小动物饲养箱、大型鸟舍还是水族馆——只是另一个地盘,只不过大小和与人类地盘的靠近程度有些特别。这个地盘比大自然中的地盘小得多.这是合情合理的。野 生环境中的地盘很大,这不是出于喜好,
    而是出于必要。在动物园里,我们为动物所做的就是我们在家里为自己所做的一切:我们把在野生环境中分散在各处的东西集中到一个小地方来。以前洞穴在 这里,小河在那边,狩猎场在一英里以外,嘹望台在狩猎场旁边,在别的地方——所有这些都要受到狮子、蛇、蚂蚁、水蛭和毒藤蔓的侵扰——而现在河水从近在手 边的龙头里流出来,我们可以在睡觉的地方的旁边洗澡,我们可以在烧饭的地方吃饭,我们可以把所有这些起保护作用的墙围起来,让里面保持干净和温暖。一座房 子就是一个缩小了的地盘,在那里,我们的基本需要可以在附近安全地得到满足。一座合理的动物园就相当于动物的房子(值得注意的是这里没有每一处人类住所都 有的火炉或类似的东西)。动物发现这里有它需要的所有地方——陈望台,休息弋迸食、饮水、洗澡、梳毛的地方,等等——而且发现不必去捕猎,一星期六天都会 有食物出现,它便会像在野生环境中将一个新地方据为己有一样占据它在动物园里的地方,仔细察看这个地方,用它这个物种常用的方式,也许是撒尿,把这个地方 划归已有。一旦完成了这个乔迁仪式,安顿了下来,动物便不会感觉自己像紧张的房客,更不会感觉自己像囚徒,而会感到自己是土地拥有者,它会像在野生环境中 的地盘上一样在它自己的场地上活动,包括在地盘受到侵犯时竭尽全力地保卫它。从主观上看,对于一只动物来说,这样的场地不比野生环境中的条件好,也不比野 生环境中的条件差;只要能满足动物的需要,无论是自然的还是人造的地盘都仅仅是一个客观情况,一个已知事实,就像豹子身上的斑点。你甚至可似说,如果动物 能凭智慧作出判断,它一定会选择住在动物园里,因为动物园和野生环境的主要区另吐在于,前者没有寄生虫和敌人,有充足的食物,而后者却有很多寄生虫和敌 人,还缺少食物。你自己想想吧。你是愿意住在豪华旅馆里,享受免费客房服务,可以随便看医生,还是愿意无家可归,没有一个照顾你的人?但是动物没有这样的 识别能力。它们在自己本性的范围内,靠自己有的东西凑和着过。
    文献里可以找到很多动物能逃跑但没有逃,或者逃跑了又回来的例子。有这样一个例子,一只黑猩猩的笼门没有上锁,门开了。黑猩猩越来越焦虑,它开始尖声叫 喊,一次又一次猛地把门关上。每次都发出震耳欲聋的当当声。最后饲养员被一位游客提醒,急忙去采取了补救措施。一座欧洲动物园里的一群狍在大门开着的时候 走出了围栏。因为受了游客的惊吓,它们逃进了附近的森林。那里有一群野生狍,还可以养活更多的狍。尽管如此,动物园里的狍还是很快回到了围栏里。在另一座 动物园里,一个工人大清早扛着木板正朝工作地点走去,他惊恐地发现清晨的薄雾中出现了一头熊,正迈着自信的步子径直朝他走来。那个人丢下木板逃命去了。动 物园的工作人员立即开始寻找逃跑的熊。他们发现它回到了围栏里,它是像爬出去时那样从一棵倒下的树上爬进去的。有人认为是木板掉在地上的声音让它受了惊 吓。


1 civic Fqczn     
  • I feel it is my civic duty to vote.我认为投票选举是我作为公民的义务。
  • The civic leaders helped to forward the project.市政府领导者协助促进工程的进展。
2 behold jQKy9     
  • The industry of these little ants is wonderful to behold.这些小蚂蚁辛勤劳动的样子看上去真令人惊叹。
  • The sunrise at the seaside was quite a sight to behold.海滨日出真是个奇景。
3 incessant WcizU     
  • We have had incessant snowfall since yesterday afternoon.从昨天下午开始就持续不断地下雪。
  • She is tired of his incessant demands for affection.她厌倦了他对感情的不断索取。
4 shrubs b480276f8eea44e011d42320b17c3619     
灌木( shrub的名词复数 )
  • The gardener spent a complete morning in trimming those two shrubs. 园丁花了整个上午的时间修剪那两处灌木林。
  • These shrubs will need more light to produce flowering shoots. 这些灌木需要更多的光照才能抽出开花的新枝。
5 profusion e1JzW     
  • He is liberal to profusion.他挥霍无度。
  • The leaves are falling in profusion.落叶纷纷。
6 troupe cmJwG     
  • The art troupe is always on the move in frontier guards.文工团常年在边防部队流动。
  • The troupe produced a new play last night.剧团昨晚上演了一部新剧。
7 shrill EEize     
  • Whistles began to shrill outside the barn.哨声开始在谷仓外面尖叫。
  • The shrill ringing of a bell broke up the card game on the cutter.刺耳的铃声打散了小汽艇的牌局。
8 mighty YDWxl     
  • A mighty force was about to break loose.一股巨大的力量即将迸发而出。
  • The mighty iceberg came into view.巨大的冰山出现在眼前。
9 rhinoceros tXxxw     
  • The rhinoceros has one horn on its nose.犀牛鼻子上有一个角。
  • The body of the rhinoceros likes a cattle and the head likes a triangle.犀牛的形体像牛,头呈三角形。
10 hippopotamuses c181c1d78c1ede1045b338ada51479df     
n.河马(产于非洲)( hippopotamus的名词复数 )
  • Hippopotamuses teem in this river. 这条河里有很多河马。 来自《简明英汉词典》
11 abiding uzMzxC     
  • He had an abiding love of the English countryside.他永远热爱英国的乡村。
  • He has a genuine and abiding love of the craft.他对这门手艺有着真挚持久的热爱。
12 lodging wRgz9     
  • The bill is inclusive of the food and lodging. 账单包括吃、住费用。
  • Where can you find lodging for the night? 你今晚在哪里借宿?
13 Alcoholics Alcoholics     
n.嗜酒者,酒鬼( alcoholic的名词复数 )
  • Many alcoholics go on drinking sprees that continue for days at a time. 许多酒鬼一次要狂饮好几天。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • Do you have a copy of the Alcoholics Anonymous book? 你手上有戒酒匿名会的书吗? 来自互联网
14 frankly fsXzcf     
  • To speak frankly, I don't like the idea at all.老实说,我一点也不赞成这个主意。
  • Frankly speaking, I'm not opposed to reform.坦率地说,我不反对改革。
15 frenzied LQVzt     
  • Will this push him too far and lead to a frenzied attack? 这会不会逼他太甚,导致他进行疯狂的进攻?
  • Two teenagers carried out a frenzied attack on a local shopkeeper. 两名十几岁的少年对当地的一个店主进行了疯狂的袭击。
16 lasciviousness dc23675087f5045d364a738d7131d889     
17 affronting 8a354fe6893652840562e8ac4c599f74     
v.勇敢地面对( affront的现在分词 );相遇
18 outrages 9ece4cd231eb3211ff6e9e04f826b1a5     
引起…的义愤,激怒( outrage的第三人称单数 )
  • People are seeking retribution for the latest terrorist outrages. 人们在设法对恐怖分子最近的暴行进行严惩。
  • He [She] is not allowed to commit any outrages. 不能任其胡作非为。
19 Founder wigxF     
  • He was extolled as the founder of their Florentine school.他被称颂为佛罗伦萨画派的鼻祖。
  • According to the old tradition,Romulus was the founder of Rome.按照古老的传说,罗穆卢斯是古罗马的建国者。
20 punctuated 7bd3039c345abccc3ac40a4e434df484     
v.(在文字中)加标点符号,加标点( punctuate的过去式和过去分词 );不时打断某事物
  • Her speech was punctuated by bursts of applause. 她的讲演不时被阵阵掌声打断。
  • The audience punctuated his speech by outbursts of applause. 听众不时以阵阵掌声打断他的讲话。 来自《简明英汉词典》
21 shriek fEgya     
  • Suddenly he began to shriek loudly.突然他开始大声尖叫起来。
  • People sometimes shriek because of terror,anger,or pain.人们有时会因为恐惧,气愤或疼痛而尖叫。
22 shrieks e693aa502222a9efbbd76f900b6f5114     
n.尖叫声( shriek的名词复数 )v.尖叫( shriek的第三人称单数 )
  • shrieks of fiendish laughter 恶魔般的尖笑声
  • For years, from newspapers, broadcasts, the stages and at meetings, we had heard nothing but grandiloquent rhetoric delivered with shouts and shrieks that deafened the ears. 多少年来, 报纸上, 广播里, 舞台上, 会场上的声嘶力竭,装腔做态的高调搞得我们震耳欲聋。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
23 benevolent Wtfzx     
  • His benevolent nature prevented him from refusing any beggar who accosted him.他乐善好施的本性使他不会拒绝走上前向他行乞的任何一个乞丐。
  • He was a benevolent old man and he wouldn't hurt a fly.他是一个仁慈的老人,连只苍蝇都不愿伤害。
24 otters c7b1b011f1aba54879393a220705a840     
n.(水)獭( otter的名词复数 );獭皮
  • An attempt is being made to entice otters back to the river. 人们正试图把水獭引诱回河里去。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Otters are believed to have been on Earth for 90 million years. 水獭被认为存活在地球上已经9千多万年。 来自互联网
25 discordant VlRz2     
  • Leonato thought they would make a discordant pair.里奥那托认为他们不适宜作夫妻。
  • For when we are deeply mournful discordant above all others is the voice of mirth.因为当我们极度悲伤的时候,欢乐的声音会比其他一切声音都更显得不谐调。
26 squeaking 467e7b45c42df668cdd7afec9e998feb     
v.短促地尖叫( squeak的现在分词 );吱吱叫;告密;充当告密者
  • Squeaking floorboards should be screwed down. 踏上去咯咯作响的地板应用螺钉钉住。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Can you hear the mice squeaking? 你听到老鼠吱吱叫吗? 来自《简明英汉词典》
27 chattering chattering     
n. (机器振动发出的)咔嗒声,(鸟等)鸣,啁啾 adj. 喋喋不休的,啾啾声的 动词chatter的现在分词形式
  • The teacher told the children to stop chattering in class. 老师叫孩子们在课堂上不要叽叽喳喳讲话。
  • I was so cold that my teeth were chattering. 我冷得牙齿直打战。
28 glazed 3sLzT8     
adj.光滑的,像玻璃的;上过釉的;呆滞无神的v.装玻璃( glaze的过去式);上釉于,上光;(目光)变得呆滞无神
  • eyes glazed with boredom 厌倦无神的眼睛
  • His eyes glazed over at the sight of her. 看到她时,他的目光就变得呆滞。 来自《简明英汉词典》
29 cape ITEy6     
  • I long for a trip to the Cape of Good Hope.我渴望到好望角去旅行。
  • She was wearing a cape over her dress.她在外套上披着一件披肩。
30 glossy nfvxx     
  • I like these glossy spots.我喜欢这些闪闪发光的花点。
  • She had glossy black hair.她长着乌黑发亮的头发。
31 baboons 2ea074fed3eb47c5bc3098d84f7bc946     
n.狒狒( baboon的名词复数 )
  • Baboons could break branches and leaders. 狒狒会折断侧枝和顶梢。 来自辞典例句
  • And as nonprimates, they provoke fewer ethical and safety-related concerns than chimps or baboons. 而且作为非灵长类,就不会产生像用黑猩猩或狒狒那样的伦理和安全方面的顾虑。 来自英汉非文学 - 生命科学 - 医学的第四次革命
32 iridescent IaGzo     
  • The iridescent bubbles were beautiful.这些闪着彩虹般颜色的大气泡很美。
  • Male peacocks display their iridescent feathers for prospective female mates.雄性孔雀为了吸引雌性伴侣而展现了他们彩虹色的羽毛。
33 obese uvIya     
  • The old man is really obese,it can't be healthy.那位老人确实过于肥胖了,不能算是健康。
  • Being obese and lazy is dangerous to health.又胖又懒危害健康。
34 lecherous s9tzA     
  • Her husband was described in court as a lecherous scoundrel.她的丈夫在法庭上被描绘成一个好色的无赖。
  • Men enjoy all the beautiful bones,but do not mistake him lecherous.男人骨子里全都喜欢美女,但千万别误以为他好色。
35 leisurely 51Txb     
  • We walked in a leisurely manner,looking in all the windows.我们慢悠悠地走着,看遍所有的橱窗。
  • He had a leisurely breakfast and drove cheerfully to work.他从容的吃了早餐,高兴的开车去工作。
36 wheeze Ep5yX     
  • The old man managed to wheeze out a few words.老人勉强地喘息着说出了几句话。
  • He has a slight wheeze in his chest.他呼吸时胸部发出轻微的响声。
37 founders 863257b2606659efe292a0bf3114782c     
n.创始人( founder的名词复数 )
  • He was one of the founders of the university's medical faculty. 他是该大学医学院的创建人之一。 来自辞典例句
  • The founders of our religion made this a cornerstone of morality. 我们宗教的创始人把这看作是道德的基石。 来自辞典例句
38 rites 5026f3cfef698ee535d713fec44bcf27     
仪式,典礼( rite的名词复数 )
  • to administer the last rites to sb 给某人举行临终圣事
  • He is interested in mystic rites and ceremonies. 他对神秘的仪式感兴趣。
39 weird bghw8     
  • From his weird behaviour,he seems a bit of an oddity.从他不寻常的行为看来,他好像有点怪。
  • His weird clothes really gas me.他的怪衣裳简直笑死人。
40 predator 11vza     
  • The final part of this chapter was devoted to a brief summary of predator species.本章最后部分简要总结了食肉动物。
  • Komodo dragon is the largest living lizard and a fearsome predator.科摩多龙是目前存在的最大蜥蜴,它是一种令人恐惧的捕食性动物。
41 cheetah 0U0yS     
  • The cheetah is generally credited as the world's fastest animal.猎豹被公认是世界上跑得最快的动物。
  • The distribution of the cheetah ranges from Africa to Central Asia.印度豹的足迹遍及从非洲到中亚的广大地区。
42 prey g1czH     
  • Stronger animals prey on weaker ones.弱肉强食。
  • The lion was hunting for its prey.狮子在寻找猎物。
43 piously RlYzat     
  • Many pilgrims knelt piously at the shrine.许多朝圣者心虔意诚地在神殿跪拜。
  • The priests piously consecrated the robbery with a hymn.教士们虔诚地唱了一首赞美诗,把这劫夺行为神圣化了。
44 yearns 7534bd99979b274a3e611926f9c7ea38     
渴望,切盼,向往( yearn的第三人称单数 )
  • Every man yearns for sympathy in sorrow. 每个遇到不幸的人都渴望得到同情。
  • What I dread is to get into a rut. One yearns for freshness of thought and ideas. 我害怕的就是墨守成规。人总是向往新思想和新观念的。
45 mightily ZoXzT6     
  • He hit the peg mightily on the top with a mallet. 他用木槌猛敲木栓顶。
  • This seemed mightily to relieve him. 干完这件事后,他似乎轻松了许多。
46 hierarchy 7d7xN     
  • There is a rigid hierarchy of power in that country.那个国家有一套严密的权力等级制度。
  • She's high up in the management hierarchy.她在管理阶层中地位很高。
47 parasites a8076647ef34cfbbf9d3cb418df78a08     
寄生物( parasite的名词复数 ); 靠他人为生的人; 诸虫
  • These symptoms may be referable to virus infection rather than parasites. 这些症状也许是由病毒感染引起的,而与寄生虫无关。
  • Kangaroos harbor a vast range of parasites. 袋鼠身上有各种各样的寄生虫。
48 flaunting 79043c1d84f3019796ab68f35b7890d1     
adj.招摇的,扬扬得意的,夸耀的v.炫耀,夸耀( flaunt的现在分词 );有什么能耐就施展出来
  • He did not believe in flaunting his wealth. 他不赞成摆阔。
  • She is fond of flaunting her superiority before her friends and schoolmates. 她好在朋友和同学面前逞强。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
49 temperament 7INzf     
  • The analysis of what kind of temperament you possess is vital.分析一下你有什么样的气质是十分重要的。
  • Success often depends on temperament.成功常常取决于一个人的性格。
50 reactionary 4TWxJ     
  • They forced thousands of peasants into their reactionary armies.他们迫使成千上万的农民参加他们的反动军队。
  • The reactionary ruling clique was torn by internal strife.反动统治集团内部勾心斗角,四分五裂。
51 spatial gvcww     
  • This part of brain judges the spatial relationship between objects.大脑的这部分判断物体间的空间关系。
  • They said that time is the feeling of spatial displacement.他们说时间是空间位移的感觉。
52 lizard P0Ex0     
  • A chameleon is a kind of lizard.变色龙是一种蜥蜴。
  • The lizard darted out its tongue at the insect.蜥蜴伸出舌头去吃小昆虫。
53 knight W2Hxk     
  • He was made an honourary knight.他被授予荣誉爵士称号。
  • A knight rode on his richly caparisoned steed.一个骑士骑在装饰华丽的马上。
54 posture q1gzk     
  • The government adopted an uncompromising posture on the issue of independence.政府在独立这一问题上采取了毫不妥协的态度。
  • He tore off his coat and assumed a fighting posture.他脱掉上衣,摆出一副打架的架势。
55 minor e7fzR     
  • The young actor was given a minor part in the new play.年轻的男演员在这出新戏里被分派担任一个小角色。
  • I gave him a minor share of my wealth.我把小部分财产给了他。
56 puddle otNy9     
  • The boy hopped the mud puddle and ran down the walk.这个男孩跳过泥坑,沿着人行道跑了。
  • She tripped over and landed in a puddle.她绊了一下,跌在水坑里。
57 dreaded XuNzI3     
adj.令人畏惧的;害怕的v.害怕,恐惧,担心( dread的过去式和过去分词)
  • The dreaded moment had finally arrived. 可怕的时刻终于来到了。
  • He dreaded having to spend Christmas in hospital. 他害怕非得在医院过圣诞节不可。 来自《用法词典》
58 herald qdCzd     
  • In England, the cuckoo is the herald of spring.在英国杜鹃鸟是报春的使者。
  • Dawn is the herald of day.曙光是白昼的先驱。
59 vet 2HfyG     
  • I took my dog to the vet.我把狗带到兽医诊所看病。
  • Someone should vet this report before it goes out.这篇报道发表之前应该有人对它进行详查。
60 stork hGWzF     
  • A Fox invited a long-beaked Stork to have dinner with him.狐狸请长嘴鹳同他一起吃饭。
  • He is very glad that his wife's going to get a visit from the stork.他为她的妻子将获得参观鹳鸟的机会感到非常高兴。
61 standing 2hCzgo     
  • After the earthquake only a few houses were left standing.地震过后只有几幢房屋还立着。
  • They're standing out against any change in the law.他们坚决反对对法律做任何修改。
62 evicted 17682d2fe623013fd1839f09251d20cf     
v.(依法从房屋里或土地上)驱逐,赶出( evict的过去式和过去分词 )
  • A number of tenants have been evicted for not paying the rent. 许多房客因不付房租被赶了出来。
  • They had evicted their tenants for non-payment of rent. 他们赶走了未交房租的房客。
63 sputter 1Ggzr     
  • The engine gave a sputter and died.引擎发出一阵劈啪声就熄火了。
  • Engines sputtered to life again.发动机噼啪噼啪地重新开动了。
64 territorial LImz4     
  • The country is fighting to preserve its territorial integrity.该国在为保持领土的完整而进行斗争。
  • They were not allowed to fish in our territorial waters.不允许他们在我国领海捕鱼。
65 fulfill Qhbxg     
  • If you make a promise you should fulfill it.如果你许诺了,你就要履行你的诺言。
  • This company should be able to fulfill our requirements.这家公司应该能够满足我们的要求。
66 relentless VBjzv     
  • The traffic noise is relentless.交通车辆的噪音一刻也不停止。
  • Their training has to be relentless.他们的训练必须是无情的。
67 imperatives 89422c765dbd5ec312b504dd90831f75     
n.必要的事( imperative的名词复数 );祈使语气;必须履行的责任
  • Nixon, however, had other imperatives. 但尼克松另有需要。 来自辞典例句
  • There could be some cultural imperatives in there somewhere! 在公共传播那里,在某些方面,可能有更迫切的文化需要! 来自互联网
68 aviary TuBzj     
  • There are many different kinds of birds in the aviary.大鸟笼里有很多不同种类的鸟。
  • There was also an aviary full of rare birds.那里面还有装满稀有鸟类的鸟舍。
69 aquarium Gvszl     
  • The first time I saw seals was in an aquarium.我第一次看见海豹是在水族馆里。
  • I'm going to the aquarium with my parents this Sunday.这个星期天,我要和父母一起到水族馆去。
70 peculiar cinyo     
  • He walks in a peculiar fashion.他走路的样子很奇特。
  • He looked at me with a very peculiar expression.他用一种很奇怪的表情看着我。
71 proximity 5RsxM     
  • Marriages in proximity of blood are forbidden by the law.法律规定禁止近亲结婚。
  • Their house is in close proximity to ours.他们的房子很接近我们的。
72 lookout w0sxT     
  • You can see everything around from the lookout.从了望台上你可以看清周围的一切。
  • It's a bad lookout for the company if interest rates don't come down.如果利率降不下来,公司的前景可就不妙了。
73 infested f7396944f0992504a7691e558eca6411     
adj.为患的,大批滋生的(常与with搭配)v.害虫、野兽大批出没于( infest的过去式和过去分词 );遍布于
  • The kitchen was infested with ants. 厨房里到处是蚂蚁。
  • The apartments were infested with rats and roaches. 公寓里面到处都是老鼠和蟑螂。
74 leeches 1719980de08011881ae8f13c90baaa92     
n.水蛭( leech的名词复数 );蚂蟥;榨取他人脂膏者;医生
  • The usurers are leeches;they have drained us dry. 高利贷者是吸血鬼,他们吸干了我们的血汗。 来自《简明英汉词典》
  • Does it run in the genes to live as leeches? 你们家是不是遗传的,都以欺压别人为生? 来自电影对白
75 ivy x31ys     
  • Her wedding bouquet consisted of roses and ivy.她的婚礼花篮包括玫瑰和长春藤。
  • The wall is covered all over with ivy.墙上爬满了常春藤。
76 grooming grooming     
n. 修饰, 美容,(动物)梳理毛发
  • You should always pay attention to personal grooming. 你应随时注意个人仪容。
  • We watched two apes grooming each other. 我们看两只猩猩在互相理毛。
77 tenant 0pbwd     
  • The tenant was dispossessed for not paying his rent.那名房客因未付房租而被赶走。
  • The tenant is responsible for all repairs to the building.租户负责对房屋的所有修理。
78 subjectively 9ceb3293ef1b7663322bbb60c958e15f     
主观地; 臆
  • Subjectively, the demand of interest is the desire of human being. 荀子所说的对利的需要从主观上说就是人的欲望。
  • A sound also has an amplitude, a property subjectively heard as loudness. 声音有振幅,振幅的主观感觉是声音的大小。
79 fulfills 192c9e43c3273d87e5e92f3b1994933e     
v.履行(诺言等)( fulfill的第三人称单数 );执行(命令等);达到(目的);使结束
  • He always fulfills his promises. 他总是履行自己的诺言。 来自辞典例句
  • His own work amply fulfills this robust claim. 他自己的作品在很大程度上实现了这一正确主张。 来自辞典例句
80 judgment e3xxC     
  • The chairman flatters himself on his judgment of people.主席自认为他审视人比别人高明。
  • He's a man of excellent judgment.他眼力过人。
81 leopard n9xzO     
  • I saw a man in a leopard skin yesterday.我昨天看见一个穿着豹皮的男人。
  • The leopard's skin is marked with black spots.豹皮上有黑色斑点。
82 opt a4Szv     
  • They opt for more holiday instead of more pay.他们选择了延长假期而不是增加工资。
  • Will individual schools be given the right to opt out of the local school authority?各个学校可能有权选择退出地方教育局吗?
83 scarcity jZVxq     
  • The scarcity of skilled workers is worrying the government.熟练工人的缺乏困扰着政府。
  • The scarcity of fruit was caused by the drought.水果供不应求是由于干旱造成的。
84 unlimited MKbzB     
  • They flew over the unlimited reaches of the Arctic.他们飞过了茫茫无边的北极上空。
  • There is no safety in unlimited technological hubris.在技术方面自以为是会很危险。
85 incapable w9ZxK     
  • He would be incapable of committing such a cruel deed.他不会做出这么残忍的事。
  • Computers are incapable of creative thought.计算机不会创造性地思维。
86 secretion QDozG     
  • Is there much secretion from your eyes?你眼里的分泌物多吗?
  • In addition,excessive secretion of oil,water scarcity are also major factors.除此之外,油脂分泌过盛、缺水也都是主要因素。
87 chimp WXGza     
  • In fact,the color of gorilla and chimp are light-color.其实大猩猩和黑猩猩的肤色是较为浅的。
  • The chimp is the champ.猩猩是冠军。
88 deafening deafening     
adj. 振耳欲聋的, 极喧闹的 动词deafen的现在分词形式
  • The noise of the siren was deafening her. 汽笛声震得她耳朵都快聋了。
  • The noise of the machine was deafening. 机器的轰鸣声震耳欲聋。
89 herd Pd8zb     
  • She drove the herd of cattle through the wilderness.她赶着牛群穿过荒野。
  • He had no opinions of his own but simply follow the herd.他从无主见,只是人云亦云。
90 planks 534a8a63823ed0880db6e2c2bc03ee4a     
(厚)木板( plank的名词复数 ); 政纲条目,政策要点
  • The house was built solidly of rough wooden planks. 这房子是用粗木板牢固地建造的。
  • We sawed the log into planks. 我们把木头锯成了木板。
91 remains 1kMzTy     
  • He ate the remains of food hungrily.他狼吞虎咽地吃剩余的食物。
  • The remains of the meal were fed to the dog.残羹剩饭喂狗了。
TAG标签: 电影原著 少年派