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17. The following appeared in a letter to the editor of the Walnut1 Grove2 town newspaper.

"Walnut Grove's town council has advocated switching from EZ Disposal (which has had the contract for trash collection services in Walnut Grove for the past ten years) to ABC Waste, BECause EZ recently raised its monthly fee from $2,000 to $2,500 a month, whereas ABC's fee is still $2,000. But the town council is mistaken; we should continue using EZ. EZ collects trash twice a week, while ABC collects only once. Moreover, EZ--which, like ABC, currently has a fleet of 20 trucks--has ordered additional trucks. Finally, EZ provides exceptional service: 80 percent of respondents to last year's town survey agreed that they were 'satisfied' with EZ's performance."


The argument is not well reasoned at all, and it might be wise for Walnut Grove's town council to turn to ABC Disposal.

To begin with, despite EZ's weekly working frequency is as twice as ABC's, yet no sign has been displayed to prove that the "advantage" is necessary and fictional3. For instance, if the town's garbage amount is under a particularly lower scale, which merely reaches the quantity of once disposal from ABC and hence the relatively5 once more from EZ is just a futile6 plethora7. Also, even if twice disposal is applicable, it still deserves to doubt whether most citizens would like usual to choose EZ when taking into account the price of its service has been increased by $500 a month. Most citizens is highly possible to pick up a company that can offer best services while calling for relatively little money, for saving the extra $500, which to some extent is dispensable, I think, most citizens can cope with some easily handled trash with their own methods instead of singly relying on the disposal company.

And another crucial point I cast great discretion8 on is whether the survey made last year is the persuasive9 reflection of the whole citizen's actual attitudes. The major deniable spot is the survey's sampling size and accordingly the ultimate respondents echoing the questions. Visualize10 the citizens of Walnut town are no less than 500 thousands, but ironically only the 5 hundred ones have the fortune to be asked the question and in the end the real available records making some senses are less than the 10% of the interviewers, namely the upper limit is only 50 people. Let alone whether these answers have the widely applicable representative, just judging about the number of respondents we can have justifiable11 rights to disregard the validity of this survey.

Almost to forget to point out, that the freshly ordered 20 trucks of EZ cannot add another ponderous12 stake onto the balance, on the contrary, it might exacerbate13 the impressions of EZ in people's mind. Buying new trucks would ineluctably consume the company's property, and to take this disburse14 back the company must put some additional measures for compensation, thereby15 increasing the fees can lead the citizens to obtain the most strong conviction of loading the economic debt onto their shoulders, which finally ruins the tiny fantasy prone16 to the EZ.

So the arguer's recommendation is just nothing but a cheap propaganda to throw to the vast residents a deceptive17 illusion. I believe, in general, any one having look through these vulgar tricks full of vague information and implicit18 causal claims like me would be likely to accept the town council's decision, after all it is more sensible than the arguer suggests. (458 words)


145.A new study collected data that shows that people who snore are more likely to gain weight than are people who do not snore. It is well known that many people who snore also stop breathing frequently during the night for a few seconds, a condition called sleep apnea. The interruption of breathing wakes the person—often so briefly19 that the waking goes unnoticed--and can leave the person too tired during the day to exercise. Anyone who snores, therefore, should try to eat less than the average person and to exercise more.


In this argument, the arguer make a proposal that anyone who snores should try to eat less than the average person and to exercise more. In order to prove his claims, a new study collected data has been quoted that people who snore are more likely to gain weight than are people who do not snore. in addition, the arguer also shows a common sense to support the conclusion, which says that sleep apnea, a condition caused by snore, can wakes the sleeping person often and leave him too tired to exercise during the day.

The explanation of the conclusion sounds quite plausible20 at the first glance, but after pondering deeply upon the matter, we may find that the arguer fails to build up a causal relationship between the sentific study and the the conclusion as presented above, furthermore, this argument also suffers from critical logical confusion, How can the person who is too tired to exercise join even more aerobic21 activities during the day? To reveal the flaws of the argument more clearly, let us detail the examination.

To begin with, one major assumption in short of legitimacy22 is the relationship claimsed between the propensity23 of weight-gaining among the snores and the method to handle this problem, which is simply described as "eating less". However, why those people who snore are more likely to gain weight still remain unknown, how can the arguer gratuitously24 give the recommendation that the anyone who snores should try to eat less? there may be other ways to give the explanation of this problem, the most persuasive one is that the fat might cause by the hormone26 secreted27 by a kind of glands28. When people are snoring, means, under the condition called sleep apnea, the amount of hormone being secreted may exceed or less than, the normal one, which keeps the metabolism29 speed of the human body. Therefore, it is reasonable to imagine that the problem would even get worse after adopting the arger's suggestion that anyone who snores should eat less than the average person.

In addition, the arguer's conclusion that more excercises should be taken by the those who snore is seriously undermined by the common sense given in the argument, which points out the sleep apnea caused by snore results in the tiredness of the snorer during the day. Can such a tired person take a lot of exercisers besides his work or study? the answer is obviously seem. anyone who has basic logical-deducing ability would see the critical flaw in the argument.

In sum, unless the reslut of a further scientific study can demonstrate that the weight-gaining propensity among the snorers is caused by lacking of excercise and can be solved by eating less, the arguer's conclusion about this medical issue is unfounded.(463 words)



The argument astonishingly deduces a conclusion of the easiness to get fatter for the particular group of people who snore at sleep, and accordingly recommends eating less and strengthening the intense of exercises to avoid such trend. While the arguer established his demonstration30 on the tenable basis of a well-known discovery accepted by public, this argument, however, seems to me a wholly ramshackle one needed to scrutiny31.

To begin with, what I cannot make clear since now is the leap from the mere4 fact of lacking exercise to the aptness for gaining weight, which sounds no necessary cause-and-effect relationship between them. It might be true of the evidence the arguer takes out to show that sleep apnea can interrupt the normal sleeping tempo32 and hence results the over exhaustion33 at diurnal34 work, which obliquely35 influence the exercises necessarily for these people. The extent of the arguer's inference can only reach this level, to further exploit the aftermath concerning the putting on weight still waits for more information, such as the authoritative36 report proving such potential nexus37, or otherwise, the arguer is only resting the assertion on a gratuitous25 assumption.

Another obvious cynosure38 we facilely notice is the recommendation of eating less to relieve the inevitable39 current for weight growing, which is more unsubstantial. In the whole article, the arguer's claim range only spread to the layer of lacking exercises, referring to the habits of diets is a sudden idea out of any sign predicted, thus acts the role of invalid40 deduction41. Also, the arguer presumptuously42 holds the conviction of "any" person who snores, ought to take the measure for stint43 eating, which works against commonsensical knowledge of treating different people by choosing different remedies, at all no two individuals are totally equivalent. Once escaping the condition of eluding44 such confusion, we are able to, too, recognize the suggestion of recommending those people's joining more exercises are, on the contrary, counterproductive. Even if the prerequisites45 of people's weight problem actually stems from this very case of fatigue46, then more activities mean more fatigue at daily time enjoyed by them, and the circulation undeniably switches to the opposite side.

To sum up, starting from the ridiculous basement to the final fallacious recommendation, the arguer cursorily47 treat the gross deduction process, and add additional vulnerable announcement in the brittle48 body of the argument, which ultimately results the further discretion directly leads to its destiny of rebuff. (403 words)


1 walnut wpTyQ     
  • Walnut is a local specialty here.核桃是此地的土特产。
  • The stool comes in several sizes in walnut or mahogany.凳子有几种尺寸,材质分胡桃木和红木两种。
2 grove v5wyy     
  • On top of the hill was a grove of tall trees.山顶上一片高大的树林。
  • The scent of lemons filled the grove.柠檬香味充满了小树林。
3 fictional ckEx0     
  • The names of the shops are entirely fictional.那些商店的名字完全是虚构的。
  • The two authors represent the opposite poles of fictional genius.这两位作者代表了天才小说家两个极端。
4 mere rC1xE     
  • That is a mere repetition of what you said before.那不过是重复了你以前讲的话。
  • It's a mere waste of time waiting any longer.再等下去纯粹是浪费时间。
5 relatively bkqzS3     
  • The rabbit is a relatively recent introduction in Australia.兔子是相对较新引入澳大利亚的物种。
  • The operation was relatively painless.手术相对来说不痛。
6 futile vfTz2     
  • They were killed,to the last man,in a futile attack.因为进攻失败,他们全部被杀,无一幸免。
  • Their efforts to revive him were futile.他们对他抢救无效。
7 plethora 02czH     
  • Java comes with a plethora of ready-made types.Java配套提供了数量众多的现成类型。
  • A plethora of new operators will be allowed to enter the market.大批新的运营商将获准进入该市场。
8 discretion FZQzm     
  • You must show discretion in choosing your friend.你择友时必须慎重。
  • Please use your best discretion to handle the matter.请慎重处理此事。
9 persuasive 0MZxR     
  • His arguments in favour of a new school are very persuasive.他赞成办一座新学校的理由很有说服力。
  • The evidence was not really persuasive enough.证据并不是太有说服力。
10 visualize yeJzsZ     
  • I remember meeting the man before but I can't visualize him.我记得以前见过那个人,但他的样子我想不起来了。
  • She couldn't visualize flying through space.她无法想像在太空中飞行的景象。
11 justifiable a3ExP     
  • What he has done is hardly justifiable.他的所作所为说不过去。
  • Justifiable defense is the act being exempted from crimes.正当防卫不属于犯罪行为。
12 ponderous pOCxR     
  • His steps were heavy and ponderous.他的步伐沉重缓慢。
  • It was easy to underestimate him because of his occasionally ponderous manner.由于他偶尔现出的沉闷的姿态,很容易使人小看了他。
13 exacerbate iiAzU     
  • WMO says a warming climate can exacerbate air pollution.世界气象组织说,气候变暖可能会加剧空气污染。
  • In fact efforts will merely exacerbate the current problem.实际上努力只会加剧当前的问题。
14 disburse 49GyR     
  • Cashiers receive and disburse money in establishments other than financial institutions.除了金融机构,出纳员也会在一些社会机构里收款付款。
  • On approval,we will disburse the fund to your designated bank account directly.一经批核,贷款将于扣除手续费后直接存入您指定的银行账户。
15 thereby Sokwv     
  • I have never been to that city,,ereby I don't know much about it.我从未去过那座城市,因此对它不怎么熟悉。
  • He became a British citizen,thereby gaining the right to vote.他成了英国公民,因而得到了投票权。
16 prone 50bzu     
  • Some people are prone to jump to hasty conclusions.有些人往往作出轻率的结论。
  • He is prone to lose his temper when people disagree with him.人家一不同意他的意见,他就发脾气。
17 deceptive CnMzO     
  • His appearance was deceptive.他的外表带有欺骗性。
  • The storyline is deceptively simple.故事情节看似简单,其实不然。
18 implicit lkhyn     
  • A soldier must give implicit obedience to his officers. 士兵必须绝对服从他的长官。
  • Her silence gave implicit consent. 她的沉默表示默许。
19 briefly 9Styo     
  • I want to touch briefly on another aspect of the problem.我想简单地谈一下这个问题的另一方面。
  • He was kidnapped and briefly detained by a terrorist group.他被一个恐怖组织绑架并短暂拘禁。
20 plausible hBCyy     
  • His story sounded plausible.他说的那番话似乎是真实的。
  • Her story sounded perfectly plausible.她的说辞听起来言之有理。
21 aerobic BN8zn     
  • Aerobic exercise helps to build up stamina.有氧健身操有助于增强耐力。
  • Aerobic dance is conductive to the health.有氧舞蹈有助于健康。
22 legitimacy q9tzJ     
  • The newspaper was directly challenging the government's legitimacy.报纸直接质疑政府的合法性。
  • Managing from the top down,we operate with full legitimacy.我们进行由上而下的管理有充分的合法性。
23 propensity mtIyk     
  • He has a propensity for drinking too much alcohol.他有酗酒的倾向。
  • She hasn't reckoned on his propensity for violence.她不曾料到他有暴力倾向。
24 gratuitously 429aafa0acba519edfd78e57ed8c6cfc     
  • They rebuild their houses for them gratuitously when they are ruined. 如果他们的房屋要坍了,就会有人替他们重盖,不要工资。 来自互联网
  • He insulted us gratuitously. 他在毫无理由的情况下侮辱了我们。 来自互联网
25 gratuitous seRz4     
  • His criticism is quite gratuitous.他的批评完全没有根据。
  • There's too much crime and gratuitous violence on TV.电视里充斥着犯罪和无端的暴力。
26 hormone uyky3     
  • Hormone implants are used as growth boosters.激素植入物被用作生长辅助剂。
  • This hormone interacts closely with other hormones in the body.这种荷尔蒙与体內其他荷尔蒙紧密地相互作用。
27 secreted a4714b3ddc8420a17efed0cdc6ce32bb     
v.(尤指动物或植物器官)分泌( secrete的过去式和过去分词 );隐匿,隐藏
  • Insulin is secreted by the pancreas. 胰岛素是胰腺分泌的。
  • He secreted his winnings in a drawer. 他把赢来的钱藏在抽届里。 来自《简明英汉词典》
28 glands 82573e247a54d4ca7619fbc1a5141d80     
n.腺( gland的名词复数 )
  • a snake's poison glands 蛇的毒腺
  • the sebaceous glands in the skin 皮脂腺
29 metabolism 171zC     
  • After years of dieting,Carol's metabolism was completely out of whack.经过数年的节食,卡罗尔的新陈代谢完全紊乱了。
  • All living matter undergoes a process of metabolism.生物都有新陈代谢。
30 demonstration 9waxo     
  • His new book is a demonstration of his patriotism.他写的新书是他的爱国精神的证明。
  • He gave a demonstration of the new technique then and there.他当场表演了这种新的操作方法。
31 scrutiny ZDgz6     
  • His work looks all right,but it will not bear scrutiny.他的工作似乎很好,但是经不起仔细检查。
  • Few wives in their forties can weather such a scrutiny.很少年过四十的妻子经得起这么仔细的观察。
32 tempo TqEy3     
  • The boss is unsatisfied with the tardy tempo.老板不满于这种缓慢的进度。
  • They waltz to the tempo of the music.他们跟着音乐的节奏跳华尔兹舞。
33 exhaustion OPezL     
  • She slept the sleep of exhaustion.她因疲劳而酣睡。
  • His exhaustion was obvious when he fell asleep standing.他站着睡着了,显然是太累了。
34 diurnal ws5xi     
  • Kangaroos are diurnal animals.袋鼠是日间活动的动物。
  • Over water the diurnal change in refraction is likely to be small. 在水面上,折光的周日变化可能是很小的。
35 obliquely ad073d5d92dfca025ebd4a198e291bdc     
adv.斜; 倾斜; 间接; 不光明正大
  • From the gateway two paths led obliquely across the court. 从门口那儿,有两条小路斜越过院子。 来自辞典例句
  • He was receding obliquely with a curious hurrying gait. 他歪着身子,古怪而急促地迈着步子,往后退去。 来自辞典例句
36 authoritative 6O3yU     
  • David speaks in an authoritative tone.大卫以命令的口吻说话。
  • Her smile was warm but authoritative.她的笑容很和蔼,同时又透着威严。
37 nexus vvHyq     
  • Shared ambition is the vital nexus between them.共同的志向是把他们联结在一起的重要纽带。
  • Either way,the nexus between the consumer and consumer prices is important.无论那个方面,消费者与消费价格之间的关系是至关重要的。
38 cynosure 0y5x4     
  • Let faith be your cynosure to walk by.让信仰成为你生活中的灯塔。
  • The princess,dressed head to foot in gold,was the cynosure of all eyes.公主全身上下披金戴银,是众目注视的焦点。
39 inevitable 5xcyq     
  • Mary was wearing her inevitable large hat.玛丽戴着她总是戴的那顶大帽子。
  • The defeat had inevitable consequences for British policy.战败对英国政策不可避免地产生了影响。
40 invalid V4Oxh     
  • He will visit an invalid.他将要去看望一个病人。
  • A passport that is out of date is invalid.护照过期是无效的。
41 deduction 0xJx7     
  • No deduction in pay is made for absence due to illness.因病请假不扣工资。
  • His deduction led him to the correct conclusion.他的推断使他得出正确的结论。
42 presumptuously 3781745ffc2c927acee7a2b43eb220ee     
  • He shall presumptuously contest an inch with me. 他敢和我分庭抗礼,真是胆大妄为。 来自辞典例句
  • And all the people shall hear, and fear, and presumptuously. 13众百姓都要听见害怕,不再擅敢行事。 来自互联网
43 stint 9GAzB     
  • He lavished money on his children without stint.他在孩子们身上花钱毫不吝惜。
  • We hope that you will not stint your criticism.我们希望您不吝指教。
44 eluding 157b23fced3268b9668f3a73dc5fde30     
v.(尤指机敏地)避开( elude的现在分词 );逃避;躲避;使达不到
  • He saw no way of eluding Featherstone's stupid demand. 费瑟斯通的愚蠢要求使他走投无路。 来自辞典例句
  • The fox succeeded in eluding the hunters. 这狐狸成功地避过了猎手。 来自辞典例句
45 prerequisites b5b8e67d6a37d24ad73c89e4c7ac8c9e     
先决条件,前提( prerequisite的名词复数 )
  • Good muscles are one of the prerequisites of physical fitness. 肌肉发达是身体健康的一个必备条件。
  • One of the outstanding prerequisites of any city is a local transportation system. 本地运输系统是任何城市的突出前提条件之一。
46 fatigue PhVzV     
  • The old lady can't bear the fatigue of a long journey.这位老妇人不能忍受长途旅行的疲劳。
  • I have got over my weakness and fatigue.我已从虚弱和疲劳中恢复过来了。
47 cursorily 17fc65707d06b928c41826d50b8b31e3     
  • The subject has been referred to cursorily in the preface. 这个问题在序言中已粗略地提到了。 来自《现代汉英综合大词典》
  • The stags line up against the wall, chat cursorily with one another. 光棍来宾都一字靠在墙上,有口无心地聊着天儿。 来自辞典例句
48 brittle IWizN     
  • The pond was covered in a brittle layer of ice.池塘覆盖了一层易碎的冰。
  • She gave a brittle laugh.她冷淡地笑了笑。